5.1.7 Maintaining the Operating System

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By maintaining the operating system includes regular updates of his new 'patches' that are mostly correct some security vulnerabilities in the system already installed, upgrading to new versions of programs and libraries, 'cleaning' the file system of clusters of residual unnecessary files and backup data. Further description of actions follows the Debian operating system.

All of these commands and actions associated with them for an overview of the system and its maintenance. Particular care should be taken [/var] directory which contains all the working files services, waiting lists, web content and incoming mail, for lazy users mostly unread, directory files with discarded mail that was identified as a virus or spam, compressed log files, archives, new packages and the like. If you are not regularly monitors the state of the system, there may be some filling the space of the partitions and it is necessary to manually conduct 'clean' regardless of the fact that much of the work is done automatically. So daily inspection of servers is an essential obligation of the administrator.

Adjust the configuration according to the developments on the internet is another important task, especially if it is aimed at increasing the safety, and in this regard must be made regarding the resilience of the system checks to 'intrusion' in what is a very valuable service CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team), if available.

The worst that can happen is the administrator mistakenly change superuser password. Then you have to just starting, and some sort of optical media that contains the most basic editors and can not recognize the server system disks (Recovery CD / DVD), execute the activation of the operating system with the optical media 'hook' [/etc] directory system for it and delete the root password in [/etc/shadow] file. If the server hardware device 'i386' type, then the procedure because it helps a lot with KNOPPIX Linux distribution, which is activated with a CD / DVD player available complete Linux system that instantly detects and 'attaches' partitions of server, so that the very tools with KNOPPIX can quickly edit [/etc/shadow] file server and delete the root password, and of course by restoring the system to its original state and the password should be immediately restored. Not called KNOPPIX distribution without reason RESCUE SYSTEM.


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