5.1.5 Rest of operating system commands

 Back  Commands  Next

Commands that follow do not belong to the group that is used during the operation, but used sporadically in specific situations, or give insight into the situation that almost never changes. Therefore, as described on a separate page. But it should be borne in mind that the available commands are listed in the content directories [/bin], [/sbin] and [/usr/bin], and can also be subsequently installed 'packages' of additional commands (utilities), the person commands, e.g. ' screen ' command to control which screens multiplex physical terminal between several processes, or specific program support ' mc ' (GNU Midnight Commander), which is nothing more than a very good handler files from TUI interface. Services provided by the server may have, as an electronic mail (MAIL), WWW services, LDAP and RADIUS services and similar subsequently installed, and often have their own commands for handling them. In further support includes such package 'samba' which allows access by installing the Windows users in their corresponding directories without FTP support. Maybe at the present time for this purpose better use NAS. To work remotely SSH uses the client software. Additional commands and has a lot of packages, and can be viewed on any of the Debian servers, such as the CARNet (ftp://ftp.carnet.hr//debian/pool/main).

Shutdown and restart

Turning your computer on and off is the responsibility of system administration, and only physical power is something that every user knows. But it is not good that the server of an institution or a company everyone can turn on and off at the discretion. Therefore, servers must be in a separate room in which only the administrator has access. The stability of the server is mandatory that each of them to the power supply (110/220 V AC) is connected via UPS. UPS.

Working in the background and specific commands

Refer to the unusual and non-everyday tasks.

Special characters in commands

When the command is entered, certain characters have special meaning to the shell before it starts interpreting commands. A much more detailed description can be obtained from the literature dealing with the shell, but you have to understand what is happening, or will get unexpected results. One thing is certain, special characters should not be in the file specification, or command options..


Under this subheading is thought to commands and actions that are occasionally used to focus some jobs or get information on the computer-server about checking the operation or by introducing an administrator from the basic properties of the new server.

If the user is a directory of frequently used, and access to it time consuming, it is well under that directory making symbolic link of directories that are commonly used, as is usually the starting point (home) directory. Debian uses a multitude of symbolic links, as shown in previous examples. Creating symbolic link in the desired directory is specified with the command ' ln ':

ln -s path_to_the_destination link_name           (basic syntax)
ln -s /var/www/joomla index.html                  (example)

su -                     (be prompted to enter password with transfer of environment variables)
voda:~#                  (working directory of the user 'root')
voda:~# cd /
voda:/#                  (root directory of the system)
voda:/# cd /var/www      (retrieval of directories where is the real link)
voda:/var/www# ln -s /var/www/joomla index.html
voda:/var/www# ls -al
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root  16 2009-01-31 12:13 index.html -> /var/www/joomla

In the above example, all calls to the file 'index.html' directed to a directory that is added to the file specified.

If you want to read the basic information about the server, or check if there are any changes when upgrading can serve the next set of commands:

To check the network communications used commands ' ping ' and ' tracert ' with use as the Windows operating system, as described in the Chapter 7.4.4, except that the first command can execute each user and the second command only superuser (root).


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