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5. UNIX OPERATING SYSTEMS

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Microsoft software support in its various versions, holding over 50% of the market. In this volume include different versions of operating systems, web browsers, office software support, development tools and more. Remainder of the market consists of operating systems based on UNIX. UNIX is a name created by shortening the English compound Uniplexed Information and Computing System, and transmutation of letters CS in X, for sonority. Unix is present on a computer system or some of its variants, or as an operating system which is a good part of the 'take' of a Unix box that held derivatives as:

  • Ultrix (DEC - Digital Equipment Corporation)
  • BSD unix (Berkeley Software Distribution - FreeBSD, OpenBSD)
  • SCO unix (SCO Group Inc.)
  • AIX (IBM - International Business Machines Corporation)
  • IRIX (SGI - Silicon Graphics Incorporated)
  • Solaris (Sun - Sun Microsystems)
  • Mac OS X (Macintosh - Apple Computer, Inc.)
  • Linux (RedHat, Mandrake, Knopix, SuSE, Debian, Ubuntu ...)
 Unix - Logo

It was developed at AT&Bell Laboratories in the U.S. the 1970th , where he was set computer network that has been described as the ancestor of today's global computer network. Often, Unix solutions stand out as finance cheaper than Microsoft. True, the Unix operating systems and applications can be obtained for free, but with no support, no documentation, no corrections (patches) and everything else is now considered standard in the software industry. On the other hand, with good pay, on Unix platforms can get everything they want. So, the price is a relative term. Unix was first allowed users a graphical interface, which in turn gladly himself says Apple. Microsoft say that Apple 'borrowed' the idea of a graphical interface. How anyone is 'innocent' in this whole story accurately describes the movie 'Pirates of Silicon Valley', which illustrates both. Although many people imagine as the operating system without a GUI, Unix is very early transferred from the command line (command prompt) on the graphical interface. Today's most powerful graphics workstation Silicon Graphics (SGI) using Irix Unix variant. With IRIX, and there are many others as well as Solaris (Sun OS) and many versions of Linux systems. Often mistakenly graphical interface to the Unix-based computers called 'Windows', but a 'X Window' interface or any of the other commercial graphical interface for Unix environment as CDE.

X Window is a system in which the server provides the user a picture based on his requests, like 'Give me a circle of blue pixel size of 100' and the server delivers the user to view the screen. Of course, working in the network and typical client-server architecture. Thus in infancy and worked network systems (Mainframe) when the machine resources were physically huge and processor resources are scarce compared to today. On the server communicate over the terminals - computers without special 'intelligence', which had the task of image you show him the server based on the given command over his keyboard. CDE (Common Desktop Environment) is a graphical environment designed for stand-alone workstations with the Unix operating system. KDE (K Desktop Environment) and GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) is a free graphical interface for standalone Linux workstations, and networking is not necessary as the X Window. GNU is an acronym that is used for the free software and means "GNU's Not Unix".

With its appearance Unix introduced some properties that are now a default: multitasking, multiprocessing, networking. Unix as an example of a multiuser system property, so that with a file system can handle, its creator, user group, or by any user on the network with different rights such as the right to read, write or perform, and combinations thereof. They know that now, and Windows operating systems, but not nearly as good. Despite all his good sides UNIX has some important drawbacks. For example, compared with Windows and UNIX just can not call a user-friendly system, i.e. a system for the ordinary user. UNIX is mostly written for technically educated users, so many things to be done 'by hand'. You need to know a large number of commands for efficient use of the system. Due to the large number of different types of Unix systems are inevitable problems of compatibility because not all commands the same for all types of systems.

In the market for server operating systems shall take precedence over all the LINUX operating system. Linux is a free Unix like operating system whose development is at the end of the last century (early nineties) started mr. Linus Torvalds, as a student at the University of Helsinki, under the original name Minix - Unix in a nutshell. By today's developed quite a few versions (distributions) Linux most notably RedHat, Mandrake and Debian / GNU. Some versions of Linux have become commercial (e.g. RedHat) and is currently in a completely free and well developed version is considered the Debian / GNU Linux. Most commonly used as an operating system for servers, of which this is one in which the pages as they are reading. All chapters are further linked precisely with this version of the operating system Linux. Debian distribution feature is precisely what's involved quite a number of people in its development and license rights are such that it is almost impossible to buy one and declare a commercial product.

GNU license rights are one of the best protection rights defined in this domain. Whatever you make of computer programs including its source code must be publicly disclosed, all amendments of software and its source code under the GNU license must be made public, and if any of the above used for commercial purposes, the installation is free program support has become publicly available, what types of corporations 'Microsoft' did not like. Some good lawyer apparently made a quality job to the satisfaction of the GNU community.

Linux is an operating system which is the fastest-increasing number of users. Its quality, reliability, flexibility, a large number of services developed, relatively lower hardware requirements, and lower total cost of a solution based on Linux are the reasons that it is high-quality and cost-effective for performing various services expected from a server in the local network. But not only the servers in question. Is becoming increasingly popular with home computers and the increasing number of mobile devices based on the Linux operating system. Although the Penguin (trademark Linux) your mobile story began a few years ago, are increasingly found on various mobile devices.

 TUX - Linux Penguin

So, Linux is a clone of Unix, which means that the best software solutions left, and she solved the problem in a new and better way. The result is a powerful, fast and extremely stable operating system. Small penguin in the picture is the trademark logo Linux operating system as a whole, although some distribution of this increasingly popular operating system for the logo used by some other pictures. Penguin, which is also the mascot and logo of the Linux operating system has received its name - TUX (Torvalds UNIX), according to the author, mr. Linus Torvalds, who wrote the first version of the Linux OS kernel 1991st year. In fact, the beginnings of the Linux concept dating from creation of Mr. Richard Stallman, who was back in 1984th year he made the first free implementation of C compiler and its associated libraries, and editor and the shell. Who is more interested - GOOGLE :-).


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Citing this page:
Radic, Drago. " IT - Informatics Alphabet " Split-Croatia.
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