4.3. Windows95, 98 Operating System

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Microsoft Windows 9X, 32 bit operating systems are designed for computers with Intel's x86 microprocessors or them compatible. The first version of Windows 95 is supported by the FAT 16 file system, while subsequent versions used the FAT 32 file system, and the final version of this version of the operating systems Windows 98SE had robust support for USB devices, and a newer version of your web browser Internet Explorer (IE). Do not support symmetric multiprocessing and processing. They are intended primarily for home use but can be effectively used as a workstation in the network systems with simple and concurrent access Microsoft, Novell Netware, and other types of networks. In this sense, support working with multiple types of network protocols simultaneously and can offer its resources to other users on the network. Their successor Windows ME infamously collapsed very quickly.

Basically support working with multiple users (applications under another name) and allow each of them own profile work in order to keep their personal preferences. Profiles can be stored on a network server (Windows 9X as user - client in a network) or locally. But as essentially a simple workstation on the protection and privacy of data out of the question in the way that Windows NT operating systems. The system is multi-user, but not in the sense of simultaneous work of users.

Microsoft Windows 9X operating systems have a graphical user interface that makes it easy to perform tasks on the computer. Selecting using the cursor (mouse arrow) and click a mouse button to perform almost all actions to launch, handling the downtime with software support. In combination with the keyboard (Chapter 9h) efficiency of Windows-and greatly increases.

How is each application takes place in their part of memory, provided the stability of their simultaneous execution and each takes place in your window that may be necessary to completely reduce or expand the size of the entire screen (normal, minimized & maximized window) or in full emulation (as the original display and operation) of DOS applications (full-screen mode). Jump from one window to another-tasks performed using a combination of buttons or menu line with the tasks (Task Bar).

When he mentions DOS, at the time when the computer 'crash' is only available to DOS mode and famous character ' C:\ > ' (cursor), and if it has. But just the beginning of recovery associated with it. Thus good old DOS still should not be forgotten.

While it has already been described at the end of the Chapter DOS 6.20 operating system, due to small changes in how you use a mouse or some similar external devices follows a description of using the keys again but specifically for Windows 9X environment.

Communication mouse comes down to the fact that the mouse POINTER by moving your mouse cursor over the field, and once or twice quickly pressed (clicked) per mouse buttons to order the execution of tasks. As for this, will be used hereinafter abbreviated individual actions with the mouse, as follows:

   L1 - The matching of the mouse cursor (POINTER) and ONE-click
        the LEFT mouse button in order to select a term or icon
        (small picture of application on Windows) or window.
        Then the concept, icon or window change color or shape
        or both, depending on the method of program support.
        There are no added activities.

   L2 - The matching of the mouse pointer and DOUBLE-click the
        LEFT mouse button activate the icon as opening the window
        which icon represents or does program belongs to icon.

   L3 - The matching the mouse pointer and icon, or any special
        graphic sign and HOLDING down LEFT mouse button and
        simultaneously MOVING the mouse can move the icon or window
        or 'smears' the window to the desired location or highlights
        (SELECT), a piece of text, or a list of fields and for
        leaving key keeps created or labeling changes and issues
        need of a warrant for the delete-copy depending on the
        application. When moving the mouse the color of objects
        along which the cursor moves. Button is RELEASED when the
        desired object discolored. Then follows the corresponding
        action, usually copying.
        The procedure is known as 'DRAG and DROP'
        (dragging and dropping the object).


   D1 - The matching the mouse pointer to one of the objects
        (for example icon) or the content document and ONE-click
        RIGHT key mouse triggers the action or program or displays
        an ADDITIONAL choice of choosing belongs. In an additional
        choice choice is made moving the cursor along the menu
        and action L1 at certain choice do some activities.
        Menu breaks with L1 outside its frame or key <ESC>.
 
   D3 - The matching the mouse pointer to one of the terms and
        pressing and HOLDING the RIGHT mouse button, and moving
        the mouse simultaneous. So move icons or selected content
        to the destination. When shift the color of objects along
        which passes. When the over the object you release the
        button opens an additional choice allows you to select an
        action with the action L1 at choice. The procedure fits the
        description of the associated 'L3' (DRAGGING and DROPPING)
        but with an additional choice.
        The combination is found in newer Windows applications.
 
 
   K1 - Disposable pressure on the wheel sets marker (label)
        the window in which the cursor by moving the mouse and
        the vertical direction to search the active window.
        One pull any mouse or keyboard termination of this option
        the label disappears and the display monitor displays the
        latest status quo. This review is going smoothly, without
        skipping lines and speed browsing depends on the speed
        of movement of the mouse.

   K2 - By turning the dial without pressing done content review
        active window to jump out of a couple lines without
        moving the mouse. The default behavior of the mouse
        can be adjusted by the number of rows.
        That will be skipped by one 'tooth' when turning wheel.

Actions K1 and K2 should not expect a default in the Windows 9X operating system. Neither the common keyboard shown in Figure 3.3.35 is not standardized and experienced additions and changes, particularly in the case of the PC system. For example button with a picture of Windows logo (<Windows>) near the <ALT> key initiates the main menu. Newer keyboards have an extra set of keys, among which is an interesting set of numeric button that provides an additional set of features like call of software for computation (calculator) and the like. But how are the features of the PC keyboard as further analysis of the standard device for entering data into the computer (with mouse) without a subject. And the mouse has its 'improvement' in the PC system. Wheel between the buttons to quickly browse pages such as Microsoft WORD program support, but only if you install the appropriate drivers. In the future we can expect further improvements PC keyboard, but its fundamental importance and the function will not change significantly compared to the view in Figure 3.5.24.

Turn on your PC will be loaded from the hard disk drive system programs first and then start - a configuration file that has already been shown in Figure 4.1.1 for compatibility (with DOS of course). Then loaded VxD (Virtual Device Driver) drivers for the mouse, printer, and other devices that are specified in the registry at (database on the computer configuration and usage) - tapeworm that continuously increases as the windows used, that will force the user when-then to re-install the OS along with the entire programming support.

Final component loading are the main components of the system (kernell.32.dll), and graphical user interface, fonts and finally DESKTOP and configuration backgrounds, icons and other wonders displayed on the monitor by the taste of users. If built musical cards all else can follow the soundtrack.

All that happens is successfully recorded in diaries of the process (.log or .txt file) from which, if user has the will, can read everything that is at work with the computer going.

Drivers who initially loads IO.SYS, when find them on a hard disk are:

             HIMEM.SYS
             IFSHLP.SYS
             SETVER.EXE
             DBLSPACE.BIN or DRVSPACE.BIN

So, loaded up support for XMS memory, support for network, software version control and FAT 16 support for compressed discs. Windows 95 OSR2 version has support for FAT 32 disk systems. Automatically sets the PATH with c:\windows and c:\windows\command or whatever other directory in which the windows are installed.

To extend the PATH command in AUTOEXEC.BAT applies:

             PATH %PATH%;c:\bat;c:\tools

This means that to the basic PATH added further stated notion behind the %PATH%.

Significant data are entered into a file MSDOS.SYS, where the size of the reasons of compatibility should not be less than 1024 B. The file is hidden and system attributes, and a ban on the entry. If we want to change, to change attributes, perform the discretion to alter the content and set the attributes as before the change. The specified file is just a basic example of the principle of making SETUP program support for installing Windows 9X operating system.


Example I

Content of the starting file MSDOS.SYS.

 [Paths]
 WinDir=C:\WINDOWS
 WinBootDir=C:\WINDOWS
 HostWinBootDrv=C
	
 [Options]
 BootMulti=1
 Logo=1
 BootGUI=1
 DoubleBuffer=1
 AutoScan=1
 WinVer=4.10.2222
 ;
 ;The following lines are required for compatibility with other programs.
 ;Do not remove them (MSDOS.SYS needs to be >1024 bytes).
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxa
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxb
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxc
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxd
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxe
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxf
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxg
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxh
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxi
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxj
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxk
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxl
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxm
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxn
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxo
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxp
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxq
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxr
 ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxs

Example files MSDOS.SYS shows that this is not a driver in DOS but descriptive file IO.SYS program demonstrates how to behave when you turn on your computer and load the operating system. Items listed in the file are logical operators can be assigned the value ' 0 ' or ' 1 ', and thus determine what will be loading the operating system to execute. These options are not the only ones. Everything about them is described in detail in the system manual.

While loading the operating system and display introductory picture (logo) by pressing <ESC> key can exclude files and track messages as IO.SYS in DOS mode.

If after reading the BIOS <F5> key is held down then IO.SYS loads only basic drive files skipping part VxD files and final component of which is reflected in the image of the basic types of resolution VGA (640400) in 16 colors indicating SAFE MODE (Windows 9X is bypassing your startup files). The same would happen if for some reason there is a disturbance of records in the database (Registry).

If after reading the BIOS holds down the <F8> key then IO.SYS offered the following menu:

             1.) Normal
             2.) Logged (\BOOTLOG:TXT)
             3.) Safe Mode
             4.) Step-by-Step confirmation
             5.) Command prompt only
             6.) Safe mod command prompt only

The first is common and the other is the same thing only with a complete record of events in the file specified. The third one should try if windows unreasonably pause and then again the first command. The fourth is very useful if one wishes to determine which part is not 'wrong' because IO.SYS required for each load confirmation. The fifth and sixth are the direct work in DOS mode.

Although the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files during installation do not record data necessary for the 'reach' CD-ROM drive is still useful to them to enter the drivers and their associated parameters in order to ensure access to the CD-ROM drive on boot in DOS mode.

If you are installing Windows 95 systems made to an existing with DOS files the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files are created with AUTOEXEC.DOS and CONFIG.DOS files to load the drivers that are required in a DOS window in Windows has not and vice versa. When you change modes, the contents of these files (not the name) are mutually exchanged. Besides DOSSTART.BAT files in the directory [C:\WINDOWS] contains drivers for other devices that DOS does not know, for example for the music card, mouse, or other devices, and that is run when on Windows PC 'down' in DOS mode.

When you install the operating system SETUP program support installations requesting entry corresponding parameters for the state and accordingly configures the starting file. If there is a need for the proper execution of any older programs in Windows 9X window or DOS mode, it is convenient to configure the file according to the following example.


Example II

Examples of starting files CONFIG.SYS, AUTOEXEC.BAT and DOSSTART.BAT in Windows 95 and Windows 98 (Windows 9X) OS.

 device=c:\windows\himem.sys
 device=c:\windows\emm386.exe ram
 buffers=64,0
 files=250
 dos=umb
 fcbs=16,0
 REM --------------------------------------------
 REM       configuration of system files
 REM --------------------------------------------
 dos=high
 lastdrive=z
 shell=c:\command.com c:\ /e:2048 /p /u:255
 device=c:\tools\taisatap.sys /d:mscd000 /n:1
 device=c:\windows\command\display.sys con=(ega,,1)
 country=385,852,c:\windows\command\country.sys



 @echo off
 set tmp=c:\temp
 set temp=c:\temp 
 set sound=c:\progra~1\creative
 set midi=synth:1 map:e mode:0
 set blaster=a220 i5 d1 h5 p330 e620 t6 
 REM ------------------------------------
 REM      starting file of system
 REM ------------------------------------
 path %path%;c:\bat;c:\tools;c:\programs
 doskey
 mode con codepage prepare=((852) c:\windows\command\ega.cpi)
 mode con codepage select=852
 keyb yu,852,c:\windows\command\keyboard.sys /id:234



 c:\tools\ctcm
 REM --------------------------------------------
 REM            start file for DOS mode
 REM --------------------------------------------
 c:\tools\mouse.com /s
 c:\tools\mscdex.exe /d:mscd000

Environment variables are automatically set by a successful launch of the operating system are:

             TMP=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP
             TEMP=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP
             PROMPT=$p$g
             winbootdir=C:\WINDOWS
             PATH=C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND
             COMSPEC=C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND.COM
             windir=C:\WINDOWS

Some of them have already been defined in the records MSDOS.SYS file. Their contents may change or add new definitions by SET command in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

If you are using does not use older software support such as games, measuring or accounting programs for DOS and Windows 3.x to run the pre-installed Windows 9X operating system did not need one of these files. Then when crossing into DOS mode loses support for the characters and the definition of country localities and a CD-ROM drive becomes inaccessible. OS: Windows 9X installation is basically adding the first and the last two lines of the file and CONGIG.SYS last three lines of the file AUTOEXEC.BAT to program support for the characteristics of country localities in DOS mode.

To install the Windows 9X operating systems requires a boot floppy with support for XMS memory and a CD-ROM drive as the computer's motherboard BIOS does not allow automatic restart the installation CD-ROM. Then, make sure that they are properly defined directories and drive (usually [A:]) to start a disc file. Besides the above boot floppy should contain programs necessary to prepare the hard disk to install the OS (at least FDISK and FORMAT). Windows 9X operating system can not be installed on the hard drive if the system already has the system properties, but the disc must be completely empty. The only option if it is installed on a partition already mounted by the stronger brother NT type.

So, the windows can be loaded in a variety of ways (this does not apply to NT systems) and contain many elements of compatibility in DOS, all for the purpose of ensuring an older computer programs that are used in support of older systems to measure or something similar.

If everything is set properly load and when all the devices are correct welcomes users to work comfortably GUI (desktop) that can at will 'fill' icon which calls for the application (shortcut) and a line selector for the job (TascBar) that can be moved to any edge of the screen, which contains a very important button START which by L1 action offering a series of drop-down menu (pop-up), which can optionally be arranged in which the calls (shortcut) to almost all facilities operating system and software support.

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