4.1.4. Commands of System

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Controls are the key words that immediately affect the appropriate final action after entering keywords and to pressing the <ENTER> key. Commands per type in keywords and press the key <ENTER> seek additional information or actions to make the final action performed. Commands are short keywords and action is usually quick and easy. Furthermore the description of commands with syntax along with a description of their purpose and method of use:

 CHKDSK_[disk:][/F][/V]                                       (Ext)

Performs simple diagnostic disk. Switch ' /F ' provides automatic correction of detected defects, and ' /V ' displays the name of the file whose trial is in progress. For example:

 CHKDSK A:/V   Performs a disk check, asking for correction
               found errors (none /F) and displays the name
               test files.

 DATE_[mm-dd-gg]                                              (Int)

The fit with the brackets changes the current system date. If there is no amendment in parentheses asks to enter the new date. Form may be different if the parameters of the other state.

 DISKCOPY_[sourceDISK:_[destinationDISK:]]_[/V]               (Ext)

Allows copying of disks. The ' /V ' provides control accuracy and copying process takes longer. The destination disk should be pre-formatted.


Examples:

 DISKCOPY A: B: /V   Allows copying from floppy [A:] to [B:]
                     only if both devices are the same (e.g.
                     both disks of 3.5"), and carries out
                     verification correctness copying.

 DISKCOPY A: A:   Copies the contents of the original disk
                  (SOURCE) to the disk requires that the same
                  inserted into the hole destination (TARGET)
                  and completion deletes currently stored
                  contents of the disc.
 DOSKEY                                                       (Ext)

Usually placed in the starting AUTOEXEC.BAT file to provide memory for about twenty payment orders from the keyboard. Orders are searching and selecting the vertical arrows to re-execute.

 EXIT                                                         (Int)

Enables output from the OS when the OS came from other applications e.g. from Windows through the DOS window.

 LABEL_[disk:][newIME]                                        (Ext)

You can change the name of the device (disk). If your device name is not specified by the program asks to enter the new name for the device on which the current OS.

 MEM_[/C][/P]                                                 (Ext)

Provides an overview of the content of working memory. Switch ' /C ' provides a detailed overview and switch ' /P ' desktop print screen by screen.

 NUMLOCK=[OFF|ON]                                             (Int)

Specifies the CONFIG.SYS file and determines the initial status of the numeric keypad. The character ' | ' indicates that the choice of OFF and ON mutually exclusive (only one can).

 PATH[;]                                                      (Int)

Specifies the starting AUTOEXEC.BAT file in the form of a list of directory that will ensure continuous access to separated by ' ; '. If used during operation, without addition, an overview of the list, and if used with the ' ; ' deletes set approaches.

 PRINT_[/D:device]_#FS_[/P]                                   (Ext)

Allows you to print files listed in the specification. The device is one of the printers connected to the serial COM1, COM2, etc., or parallel LPT1, LPT2, etc. (for LPT1 or PRN) port. The ' /P ' allows you to file put on waiting list if you want to print the contents of multiple consecutive files. So have other activities while the files are printed in the order in the list mode. Command makes sense only for a text-readable files.

 PROMPT_[$p$g$t$d$v]                                          (Int)

Gives form to prompt (e.g. C:\> or MS-DOS Version 6.20C:\>), depending on how you enroll combinations $p(disc label), $g(label>), $t(time), $d(date) and $v(version OS as in the example). Form is usually set in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file (as in Example III of this Chapter), and less frequently during the work with the OS. Able to command higher than those shown.

 SYS_disk:                                                    (Ext)

Provides fundamental systemic properties of the device to which it relates. According to the syntax of the command is shown to be set with a device that already has an operating system is the location of the core system files (COMMAND.COM, and the other three). For example:

 C:\>SYS A:   At diskette [A:] fundamental systemic properties
              creates and copies the boot sector on it
              required files (Which?).

 TIME_[ss:[mm:]]                                              (Int)

Displays (if changes are typed option in parentheses) time, which is currently in the computer's memory. When changes are enough to enter the hours and minutes, although it is possible to add a second and hundreds. Without a parameter displays the current time and asks for a new entry, and press <ENTER> key stops the program.

 VER                                                          (Int)

Displays the current version of the OS that is installed in the system.

 VOL_disk:                                                    (Int)

Briefly shows characteristics of the devices to which the command applies.


Edit files

EDIT command allows you to make changes to the files of textual content. The user will have the most needs for harmonization of the file contents:

Specified file is read after power and reach of computer systems on the disk. In one line may be indicated only one OS command and its parameters. To set the correct parameter is useful when you enroll all roads and calls for additional devices used MEMMAKER command that runs a program that successfully support PC and optimizes parameters in these files. Not recommended for novice users to use.

EDIT command in his work relies on program support QBASIC (Quick BASIC) language processor as the composition of the OS. Its activation will show a window in the upper line of the window has the main menu (MENU BAR) who grabbed by pressing <ALT>.

Horizontal arrow selects a menu of the desired (FILE, EDIT, SEARCH, OPTIONS or HELP) or by pressing toward increasing / underlined letter in the menu name. When selecting the desired term or press the corresponding button opens a drop-down menu (POP MENU), which allows retrieval of vertical selection of the desired term.

Terms that have dots (...) after the name indicate the additional choice of choosing.

Meaning of certain terms main menu and its contents listed after:

FILE - choose a file for the work

 NEW       Creating a new file that has no on disk
 OPEN ...    Finding and calling existing file
 SAVE      Storage accessed existing files on the same place.
 SAVE AS ...   Choice of place and name the new file and storage.
 PRINT...    Print all or part of the file.
 EXIT      Exits Editor and return to the OS.

EDIT - changes to the selected file

 CUT       Delete selected text and save the contents
           of the CLIP BOARD.
 CLIP BOARD    Handy once a warehouse for storage.
 COPY      Copies selected text in CLIP BOARD.
 PASTE         Set the content of CLIP BOARD the desired place.
 CLEAR     Delete selected text without placing content
           in CLIP BOARD.

SEARCH - finding the desired

 FIND...            Entering the term that wants to to find.
 REPEAT LAST FIND     Repeating previously found.
 CHANGE...          Entering term that wants to to find and his
                    replacement with new content in part
                    or in whole file.

OPTIONS - additional choice

 DISPLAY    Displays and allows modification of parameters
            editor as background color, font and more.
 HELP PATH...    Allows entry of the device and directory where
                 contains files with additional descriptions (help).

HELP - retrieval of additional explanations

 GETTING STARTED   Short instruction on how to use the HELP.
 KEYBOARD        Description of all the choices
                 and combinations of keys.
 ABOUT...    Shows the version of the program
             and help copyright holders.

With the presented concepts meet is almost inevitable no matter what the application in question, and therefore need to remember. Learn now, you know forever!

Certain commands from the right side and the name have shown that a combination of keys required to perform the same tasks without opening the menu. Work is faster but they should remember. These are called KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS.

EDIT fully screen editor, that allows changing the contents text files (can not open binary) at any location on the screen. Navigating through the contents of the file is done using the editor and cursor keys or numeric sets with deactivated figures. The syntax is:

 EDIT_[#FS]                                                   (Ext)

For example, a review and possible changes in the content reference MS-DOS to perform the command:

 C:\>EDIT C:\DOS\README.TXT

Other commands and orders

Refer to the appropriate tasks groundbreaking advanced users. Mostly they are transient commands and commands and controls the OS. Using them can be realized:

There are a few more features (like FDISK, DBLSPACE) that are appropriate for the use of users who are very good at coping with the OS. It is not recommended to use these commands if you are not beginners several times with the same use a more experienced user.

Do not learn on own mistakes!




SUMMARY:

A short description of each command is given OS command FASTHELP, which has an embedded call control printing from the command MORE. In several screens lists the commands and all commands and their purpose, which is shown in the following consolidated list.

 APPEND      Allows programs to open data files in specified
             directories as if they were in the current directory.
 ATTRIB      Displays or changes file attributes.
 BREAK       Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking.
 CD          Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
 CHCP        Displays or sets the active code page number.
 CHDIR       Displays the name of or changes the current directory.
 CHKDSK      Checks a disk and displays a status report.
 CHOICE      Prompts the user to make a choice in a batch program.
 CLS         Clears the screen.
 COMMAND     Starts a new instance of the MS-DOS command interpreter.
 COMP        Compares the contents of two files or sets of files.
 COPY        Copies one or more files to another location.
 CTTY        Changes the terminal device used to control your system.
 DATE        Displays or sets the date.
 DBLSPACE    Creates and manages drives compressed by
             using DoubleSpace.
 DEBUG       Starts Debug, a program testing and editing tool.
 DEFRAG      Reorganizes the files on a disk to optimize the disk.
 DEL         Deletes one or more files.
 DELOLDOS    Deletes the OLD_DOS.1 directory and the files it contains.
 DELTREE     Deletes a directory and all the files
             and subdirectories in it.
 DIR         Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory.
 DISKCOMP    Compares the contents of two floppy disks.
 DISKCOPY    Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another.
 DOSKEY      Edits command lines, recalls MS-DOS commands,
             and creates macros.
 DOSSHELL    Starts MS-DOS Shell.
 DRVSPACE    Creates and manages drives compressed by using DriveSpace.
 ECHO        Displays messages, or turns command echoing on or off.
 EDIT        Starts MS-DOS Editor, which creates and changes
             ASCII files.
 EMM386      Enables or disables EMM386 expanded memory support.
 ERASE       Deletes one or more files.
 EXIT        Quits the COMMAND.COM program (command interpreter).
 EXPAND      Decompresses one or more compressed files.
 FASTHELP    Provides summary Help information for MS-DOS commands.
 FASTOPEN    Decreases the amount of time needed to open frequently
             used files and directories.
 FC          Compares two files or sets of files,
             and displays the differences between them.
 FDISK       Configures a hard disk for use with MS-DOS.
 FIND        Searches for a text string in a file or files.
 FOR         Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files.
 FORMAT      Formats a disk for use with MS-DOS.
 GRAPHICS    Loads a program that can print graphics.
 HELP        Provides complete, interactive Help information
             for MS-DOS commands.
 INTERLNK    Connects two computers via parallel or serial ports.
 INTERSVR    Starts the Interlnk server.
 KEYB        Configures a keyboard for a specific language.
 LABEL       Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.
 LH          Loads a program into the upper memory area.
 LOADFIX     Loads a program above the first 64K of memory,
             and runs the program.
 LOADHIGH    Loads a program into the upper memory area.
 MD          Creates a directory.
 MEM         Displays the amount of used and free memory
             in your system.
 MEMMAKER    Starts the Memmaker program, which optimizes your
             computer's memory.
 MKDIR       Creates a directory.
 MODE        Configures a system device.
 MORE        Displays output one screen at a time.
 MOVE        Moves one or more files. Also renames files
             and directories.
 MSAV        Scans your computer for known viruses.
 MSBACKUP    Backs up or restores one or more files from
             one disk to another.
 MSD         Provides detailed technical information
             about your computer.
 NLSFUNC     Loads country-specific information.
 PATH        Displays or sets a search path for executable files.
 PAUSE       Suspends processing of a batch file and
             displays a message.
 POWER       Turns power management on and off.
 PRINT       Prints a text file while you are using other
             MS-DOS commands.
 PROMPT      Changes the MS-DOS command prompt.
 QBASIC      Starts the MS-DOS QBASIC programming environment.
 RD          Removes a directory.
 REN         Renames a file or files.
 RENAME      Renames a file or files.
 REPLACE     Replaces files.
 RESTORE     Restores files that were backed up by using
             the BACKUP command.
 RMDIR       Removes a directory.
 SCANDISK    Checks a drive for errors and repairs any
             problems it finds.
 SET         Displays, sets, or removes MS-DOS environment variables.
 SETVER      Sets the version number that MS-DOS reports to a program.
 SHARE       Installs file-sharing and locking capabilities
             on your hard disk.
 SORT        Sorts input.
 SUBST       Associates a path with a drive letter.
 SYS         Copies MS-DOS system files and command interpreter
             to a disk you specify.
 TIME        Displays or sets the system time.
 TREE        Graphically displays the directory structure of
             a drive or path.
 TYPE        Displays the contents of a text file.
 UNDELETE    Restores files previously deleted with the DEL command.
 UNFORMAT    Restores a disk erased by the FORMAT command. 
 VER         Displays the MS-DOS version.
 VERIFY      Directs MS-DOS to verify that your files are
             written correctly to a disk.
 VOL         Displays a disk volume label and serial number.
 VSAFE       Continuously monitors your computer for viruses.
 XCOPY       Copies files (except hidden and system files)
             and directory trees.

A more detailed description of the controls and commands the support program called HELP. Per-call assistance through controls of EDITOR allows the choice of the term using the arrow keys and get a detailed description of the commands and command syntax OS even mali examples of the use thereof. Chance of a direct call to the command e.g.

 HELP DIR (should not specify a file type)

Experienced users tend to rely on one of the SHELL, because they do not have almost anything and all actions are performed using the mouse and a few keys. Such programs usually have built-in support for viewing content and characteristics of various types of files, and allow immediate review .dbf or .pcx or other files. These are for example NORTON COMMANDER or XTGOLD.

Phenomenal tool for working with files in DOS environment just NORTON COMMANDER (NC). Its design and inspiration for today's tools the same purpose in a much more advanced operating systems. If it was installed mouse support work with him was even simpler. Red rectangle in the following Figure is the mouse pointer. NC shows the interface of the next image.

 Norton Commander software

Was used a few more versions of DOS (Disk Operaing System) operating system, as well as PC DOS, whose roots are in essentially the same up to version 3.3. MS DOS is a product of the company Microsoft, and PC DOS is the continued development of the same operating system under the aegis of the company IBM. There is no the essential difference between them in the work. But graphical environment under the control of the Windows software is becoming increasingly popular and more efficient (due to the development of technology.) Almost all of today's software tools have a version developed for the Windows environment. WINDOWS environment issue is the next Chapter.

Basic external aid WINDOWS system is a device exactly named MOUSE. Communication mouse comes down to the fact that the mouse POINTER by moving your mouse cursor over the field, and once or twice quickly pressed (clicked) per mouse buttons to order the execution of tasks. As for this, will be used hereinafter abbreviated individual actions with the mouse, as follows:

   L1 - The matching of the mouse cursor (POINTER) and ONE-click
        the LEFT mouse button in order to select a term or icon
        (small picture of application on Windows) or window.
        Then the concept, icon or window change color or shape
        or both, depending on the method of program support.
        There are no added activities.

   L2 - The matching of the mouse pointer and DOUBLE-click the
        LEFT mouse button activate the icon as opening the window
        which icon represents or does program belongs to icon.

   L3 - The matching the mouse pointer and icon, or any special
        graphic sign and HOLDING down LEFT mouse button and
        simultaneously MOVING the mouse can move the icon or window
        or 'smears' the window to the desired location or highlights
        (SELECT), a piece of text, or a list of fields and for
        leaving key keeps created or labeling changes and issues
        need of a warrant for the delete-copy depending on the
        application. When moving the mouse the color of objects
        along which the cursor moves. Button is RELEASED when the
        desired object discolored. Then follows the corresponding
        action, usually copying.
        The procedure is known as 'DRAG and DROP'
        (dragging and dropping the object).


   D1 - The matching the mouse pointer to one of the objects
        (for example icon) or the content document and ONE-click
        RIGHT key mouse triggers the action or program or displays
        an ADDITIONAL choice of choosing belongs. In an additional
        choice choice is made moving the cursor along the menu
        and action L1 at certain choice do some activities.
        Menu breaks with L1 outside its frame or key <ESC>.
 
   D3 - The matching the mouse pointer to one of the terms and
        pressing and HOLDING the RIGHT mouse button, and moving
        the mouse simultaneous. So move icons or selected content
        to the destination. When shift the color of objects along
        which passes. When the over the object you release the
        button opens an additional choice allows you to select an
        action with the action L1 at choice. The procedure fits the
        description of the associated 'L3' (DRAGGING and DROPPING)
        but with an additional choice.
        The combination is found in newer Windows applications.
 
 
   K1 - Disposable pressure on the wheel sets marker (label)
        the window in which the cursor by moving the mouse and
        the vertical direction to search the active window.
        One pull any mouse or keyboard termination of this option
        the label disappears and the display monitor displays the
        latest status quo. This review is going smoothly, without
        skipping lines and speed browsing depends on the speed
        of movement of the mouse.

   K2 - By turning the dial without pressing done content review
        active window to jump out of a couple lines without
        moving the mouse. The default behavior of the mouse
        can be adjusted by the number of rows.
        That will be skipped by one 'tooth' when turning wheel.

Actions K1 and K2 should not expect a default in the Windows 9X operating system. In any case with Windows is more comfortable to work with MOUSE, but if the 'crash' need to know 'DOS' to help them back to life.

The next Chapters will deal exclusively with the Windows graphical environment.

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