4.1.2. View the content of disk, directory and file

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Each operating system uses some sort of file structure (file system) for storage file to the intended media. Files containing data that the contents in them are grouped into groups so that each group - directory (folder, map) contains files similar characteristics (executable, system, library, music, video, etc.) regardless of whether they distributed operating system, control program or user. Within a directory must not only files but also it associated directories - subdirectories (subdirectory). All together makes a hierarchical structure that resembles a tree in which the branches are directories and leaves of branches are files. At the top is the ROOT directory.

Depending on the type of operating system directory can be a simple list of files that indicate which files belong to him, so directory is one kind of file (Unix, Linux ...), and attributes of files are records within the file, or is the directory special file which comprises the data files that are assigned to it, as the file name and its properties (Windows, DOS ...). No matter what it is used for any concept of a hierarchical directory structure that allows retrieval or save files in some of them to FILE SPECIFICATION that define the operating system as well as in the examples in Chapter 4.1.1 and 5.1.1.

Basic operating system commands relating to the movement along the tree structure of directories and view the contents of the individual. Moving from directory to directory is made command CD or command CHDIR (Change Directory) by syntax:

 CD_[disk:][\path\]DIRECTORY                                  (Int)
 CD\
 CD..

The first command enables you to set up a DOS disk in the specified directory, the second command to return to the ROOT - the beginning of the directory tree structure, and a third return to the parent directory relative to the current. Meaning supplements is:

 disk:   Any device wants to make directory, if not
         specified includes the device where it is.
 \path\   Path (directories) to the directory where you want
          create a new directory.
          If do not specify a new folder is created in
          the directory in which OS is currently located.
 DIRECTORY  Directory name to 8 (eight) characters,
            as well as for the file.

The following examples are given orders to move through the tree drive [C:] to Figure 4.1.2 and directory KADAR created on the diskette [A:], with a prompt that shows where the current 'resident' OS.


Examples:

 C:\>CD WINDOWS                                        1. section
 C:\WINDOWS\>CD SYSTEM
 C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\>CD..
 C:\WINDOWS\>CD MSAPPS
 C:\> ----------------------
 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\>CD MSINFO                          2. section
 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\MSINFO\>CD..
 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\>CD..
 C:\WINDOWS\>CD..
 C:\> ----------------------
 C:\>CD C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\MSINFO                       3. section
 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\MSINFO\>CD\
 C:\> ----------------------
 C:\>CD DOS                                            4. section
 C:\DOS\>A:
 A:\>CD KADAR
 A:\KADAR\>C:
 C:\DOS\>A:
 A:\KADAR\>C:
 C:\DOS\>CD..
 C:\> ----------------------
 C:\>CD A:                                             5. section
 A:\KADAR\ --> response to the previous command
 C:\> ----------------------
 C:\>F:                                                6. section
 F:\>

If the OS is in one branch of the tree can not cross to another branch with command CD without prior returns to ROOT or a place where the branches meet. The second section of the first part of the example shows how to get to the desired directory and come back gradually. The third section shows a rapid transition to the desired directory and back. The fourth section shows the change directories and devices, the OS can remember the phone directory from which it is transferred to another device. The fifth section shows the use of the CD without an argument when it shows where the device OS last worked. The sixth section presents the possible change in the network devices when one of the drives of other computers see as [F:].

Creating a new directory is done MD command or command MKDIR (Make Directory) by the syntax:

 MD_[disk:][\path\]DIRECTORY                                  (Int)

Removing empty (no file) directory is made RD command or command RMDIR (Remove Directory). Command can not remove the directory that contains the files. The syntax is:

 RD_[disk:][\path\]DIRECTORY                                  (Int)

When creating and deleting directories no answer message is executed task. Control can be done TREE command.


Examples:

 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\>MD MSDRAW                          1. section
 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\>CD\
 C:\> ----------------------
 C:\>MD C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\WORDART                      2. section
 C:\>

The first section shows how to create directories from the directory where you want to create a new directory, and the second section shows how to create the directory ROOT. When creating the directory does not answer a message on the performed task. Control by default commands can be executed TREE command.


Examples:

 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\>RD MSDRAW
 C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\>CD\
 C:\> ----------------------
 C:\>RD C:\WINDOWS\MSAPPS\WORDART
 C:\>

The examples show how to delete the directory and the directory of ROOT.

Command to VIEW the disc contents the DIR (DIRectory), with many extras, of which the most important are listed in the syntax onwards.

 DIR_[disk:][\path][/P][/W][/A:H|/A:D][/O:N|/O:E]             (Int)

Accessories DIR command are:

 disk:   The device which inspects the content.
 path    Directory path that we want to examine the device.
 /P   Allows to stop after completing the review screen.
      Pressing any button to view the next screen.
 /W   Lets you see files arranged by columns.
      Keys /P and /W must be used simultaneously.
 /A:H   Attribute which allows the display of hidden files.
 /A:D   Attribute that allows only display directories.
 /O:N   Enables print the contents sorted by filename.
 /O:E   Allows print content sorted by type of file.

DIR without additives provides an overview of all the files in the directory in which it currently operates DOS and prints the name of the files, their type, size of B (bytes) and the date and time of creation. At the end of the list, followed by data on how the file is displayed and their total size and the amount of free disk space. Then the OS again appears with your prompt. Regardless of whether you are in the list of directories shown or not the total number at the end of the list still applies only to the current directory or a directory that is examined, and this information is not relevant to find out the total disk space usage.

An example of one complete display content directory is:

 Volume in drive C is BUMA
 Directory of C:\WORK
 .            <DIR>       12-28-94  10:08p
 ..           <DIR>       12-28-94  10:08p
 GRBCRO   BMP     141,558 12-20-94   2:36a
 NC       CFG       2,225 09-01-93  12:00p
 NE       COM      29,992 09-19-87  12:27p
 BRODOVI  DBF      83,968 12-20-94   8:10a
 NE       DOC       4,128 04-12-86   4:39a
 NC       EXE       3,358 05-10-93   6:52p
 BUTTRFLY PCX      26,296 10-19-92  12:00p
 MS       PCX       1,461 10-28-93  12:00a
 REALLIST WK1       6,321 09-16-88   2:01p
 93-94-1  WKS      17,634 12-20-94   2:49a
 DISK     WMF       4,132 04-19-94  12:00a
 TISAK    WPS       4,096 12-13-94   6:58p
 TANKER   XLS       7,330 11-26-94  11:50a
       15 file(s)      332,499 bytes
		           113,586,176 bytes free

Example III

Using the DIR command with different parameters.

Display directories in DOS device [C:], where the files are arranged alphabetically by name in five columns. These are all transient commands and command of MS-DOS 6.2.
 C:\DOS\>DIR /W/O:N or C:\>DIR C:\DOS /W/O:N
The answer to one of the computer's command is:
 Volume in drive C is BUMA  
 Directory of C:\DOS
 [.]            [..]           ANSI.SYS       APPEND.EXE     ATTRIB.EXE
 AUTOEXEC.UMB   CHKDSK.EXE     CHKLIST.MS     CHKSTATE.SYS   CHOICE.COM
 COMMAND.COM    CONFIG.UMB     COUNTRY.SYS    DBLSPACE.BIN   DBLSPACE.EXE
 DBLSPACE.HLP   DBLSPACE.INF   DBLSPACE.SYS   DBLWIN.HLP     DEBUG.EXE
 DEFAULT.SET    DEFRAG.EXE     DEFRAG.HLP     DELOLDOS.EXE   DELTREE.EXE
 DISKCOMP.COM   DISKCOPY.COM   DISPLAY.SYS    DOSHELP.HLP    DOSKEY.COM
 DRIVER.SYS     EDIT.COM       EDIT.HLP       EGA.CPI        EGA2.CPI
 EMM386.EXE     EXPAND.EXE     FASTHELP.EXE   FASTOPEN.EXE   FC.EXE
 FDISK.EXE      FIND.EXE       FORMAT.COM     GRAPHICS.COM   GRAPHICS.PRO
 HELP.COM       HELP.HLP       HIMEM.SYS      INTERLNK.EXE   INTERSVR.EXE
 KEYB.COM       KEYBOARD.SYS   KEYBRD2.SYS    LABEL.EXE      LOADFIX.COM
 MEM.EXE        MEMMAKER.EXE   MEMMAKER.HLP   MEMMAKER.INF   MEMMAKER.STS
 MODE.COM       MONOUMB.386    MORE.COM       MOVE.EXE       MSAV.EXE
 MSAV.HLP       MSAV.INI       MSAVHELP.OVL   MSAVIRUS.LST   MSBACKDB.OVL
 MSBACKDR.OVL   MSBACKFB.OVL   MSBACKFR.OVL   MSBACKUP.HLP   MSBACKUP.EXE
 MSBACKUP.OVL   MSBACKUP.INI   MSBACKUP.LOG   MSBACKUP.TMP   MSBCONFG.HLP
 MSBCONFG.OVL   MSCDEX.EXE     MSD.COM        MSD.EXE        MSTOOLS.DLL
 NETWORKS.TXT   NLSFUNC.EXE    OS2.TXT        POWER.EXE      PRINT.EXE
 QBASIC.EXE     QBASIC.HLP     RAMDRIVE.SYS   README.TXT     REPLACE.EXE
 RESTORE.EXE    SCANDISK.EXE   SCANDISK.INI   SETVER.EXE     SHARE.EXE
 SIZER.EXE      SMARTDRV.EXE   SMARTMON.EXE   SMARTMON.HLP   SORT.EXE
 SUBST.EXE      SYS.COM        TREE.COM       UNDELETE.EXE   UNFORMAT.COM
 VFINTD.386     VIRSIGS.MS     VSAFE.COM      XCOPY.EXE
      114 file(s)    4,037,112 bytes
                   113,954,816 bytes free
Display disk directory [C:] of complex alphabetically by name to get the command
    C:\>DIR /W/A:D/O:N
And the answer is:
 Volume in drive C is BUMA  
 Directory of C:\
 [BAT]          [DOS]          [MOUSE]        [PROGRAMS]     [TEMP]
 [TEMP-IE]      [TOOLS]        [WINDOWS]      [WORK]
        9 file(s)            0 bytes
                    97,169,408 bytes free

Showing all hidden files in the ROOT of devices [C:] of complex alphabetically by file type and no gain is reduced print command
 C:\>DIR /A:H/O:E
And the answer is:
 Volume in drive C is BUMA  
 Directory of C:\

 IMAGE    IDX          29 12-30-94  12:58a
 SD       INI       1,602 12-02-94   1:01p
 386SPART PAR   7,962,624 12-30-94   1:14a
 IO       SYS      40,566 09-27-93   6:20a
 MSDOS    SYS      38,138 09-27-93   6:20a
        5 file(s)    8,042,959 bytes
                    97,165,312 bytes free
View all file types .INI in WINDOWS directory allows JOKER-WILDCARD character ' * ' gives OS note that the name is of no importance. Character ' ? ' is a wild card that matches any single letter. As for this command is:
 C:\>DIR C:\WINDOWS\*.ini /W/O:N
And the answer is:
 Volume in drive C is BUMA  
 Directory of C:\WINDOWS

 ARTGALRY.INI   CLIPBRD.INI    CLOCK.INI      CONTROL.INI    DOSAPP.INI
 EXCEL4.INI     MOUSE.INI      MPLAYER.INI    MSD.INI        MSDRAW.INI
 MSFNTMAP.INI   MSMAIL.INI     MSTXTCNV.INI   MSWKSWIZ.INI   MSWORKS3.INI
 NCDINFO.INI    NETWATCH.INI   ODBC.INI       ODBCINST.INI   ODBCISAM.INI
 PROGMAN.INI    PROTOCOL.INI   QE.INI         SCHDPLUS.INI   SERIALNO.INI
 SOL.INI        SYSTEM.INI     TTEMBED.INI    WIN.INI        WINCHAT.INI
 WINFILE.INI    WINHELP.INI    WINMETER.INI   WINMINE.INI    WINWORD6.INI
 WINZIP.INI   
      36 file(s)       37,754 bytes
                   97,161,216 bytes free

Command:

 C:\>DIR C:\WINDOWS\MS?.*

provides an overview of all the files that begin with MS and have the name of three characters, were any type (file type is not important).

Command:

 C:\>DIR C:\DOS\M*.EXE

allows you to view all files in the DOS directory starting with M and type are .EXE.

View the contents of the file itself is realized TYPE command. Command, unlike the previous version of DOS does not allow hexadecimal image files, and it makes sense to use it only for text files understandable. The syntax is:

 TYPE_[disk:][\put\]IME.TIP                                   (Int)

or abbreviated to these previously mentioned TYPE_#FS. It is useful for the longer view with the command used pooled MORE lest content 'ran' across the screen.

Controlled inspection files screen by screen, with instructions on how to use the MS-DOS command is obtained:

 C:\>TYPE_C:\DOS\README.TXT | MORE

if the default place is ROOT, or command:

 C:\DOS>TYPE_README.TXT | MORE

if the default directory where the file is located. Canceling a print command is already known combination <CTRL> + <C>.

Commands that allow review of the starting configuration and file system ROOT are:

 C:\>TYPE autoexec.bat
 C:\>TYPE config.sys

It is not necessary to use MORE, because they are usually shorter than the length of one screen.

File binary content (executive) can not be 'read' this command, for example:

 C:\>TYPE_C:\DOS\tree.com

To read the executable file used for the purpose designed software products.

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