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4. MICROSOFT WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEMS

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 Microsoft HRVATSKA Microsoft is an American company that in 1975. was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. The company headquarters in Redmond, Washington. Main activity is the development of basic computer software such as operating systems, development tools, office applications and databases. The real business of the company flourished following the issuance of the operating system Windows 95, primarily designed for home use, which basically marks the appearance of all of today's products.

Operating systems that Microsoft has developed the firm are divided into two groups:
  • MS-DOS (MicroSoft Disk Operating System)
  • Windows (Brand name for the Microsoft Windows operating system)

MS-DOS was used on the first PC, which was developed by IBM 1981st year. The first version of PC-DOS 1.0 in 1981. year remained in almost unaltered until versions of MS-DOS 6.22 in 1994. year. Basically, it's the operating system that deals exclusively with the textual interface, disk, and run applications and assigning the command system was done with the keyboard. MS-DOS was actually developed by 'Seattle Computer Products', and called 86-DOS. Microsoft bought the SCP and the product is licensed and made available to IBM as MS-DOS. IBM is parallel to the MS-DOS issued its own PC-DOS. DOS has stopped using. Today it is used only nostalgic computer to run old programs which do not want to solve. Work in the MS-DOS operating system, which means working through the command line interface. So over the keyboard to type in the keyword (name instructions) which are added to the parameters (orientation of the instructions) and, if necessary switches (mode instructions).

But working with the command line is quite cumbersome. Although quite a few applications developed under MS-DOS operating system, some of which are used to support the work of a mouse, it still was not a graphical interface to the user. Microsoft Windows is in its infancy markedly dependent on MS-DOS and represented little more than a graphical interface DOS, but the version of Windows NT and Windows 95 are stand-alone versions of Windows with graphical user interfaces. Core of certain systems are completely different.

DOS core (kernel) systems are used:

  • 1985 Windows 1.0
  • 1987 Windows 2.0
  • 1988 Windows 2.1
  • 1990 Windows 3.0
  • 1992 Windows 3.1
  • 1992 Windows for Workgroups 3.1
  • 1993 Windows for Workgroups 3.11
  • 1995 Windows 95 / DOS 7.0 - FAT 16
  • 1997 Windows 95 OSR2 / DOS 7.1 - FAT 32
  • 1998 Windows 98
  • 1999 Windows 98 SE (Second Edition)
  • 2000 Windows Me (Millennium Edition)

NT core (kernel) or later systems are used:

  • 1993 Windows NT 3.1
  • 1994 Windows NT 3.5
  • 1995 Windows NT 3.51
  • 1996 Windows NT 4.0
  • 2000 Windows 2000 (NT 5.0)
  • 2001 Windows XP (NT 5.1)
  • 2002 Windows Server 2002 (NT 5.1)
  • 2003 Windows Server 2003 (NT 5.2)
  • 2007 Windows Home Server (NT 5.2)
  • 2007 Windows Vista (NT 6.0)
  • 2008 Windows Server 2008 (NT 6.0)
  • 2009 Windows Server 2008 R2 (NT 6.1)
  • 2009 Windows 7 (NT 6.1)
  • 2011 Windows Home Server 2011 (NT 6.1)
  • 2012 Windows Server 2012 (NT 6.2, ReFS)
  • 2012 Windows 8 (NT 6.2, ReFS)
  • 2013 Windows 8.1 (NT 6.2, ReFS)
  • 2015 Windows 10 (NT 6.4 - 10, ReFS)
  • 2016 Windows Server 2016 (NT 10, ReFS)

File systems of these two groups are completely different, FAT and NTFS. The basic difference between FAT (DOS core) and NTFS (NT core) file system is that the system is NTFS 'journaling' type which means it has the ability to AutoRecover in the case of forced shutdown due to power failure, for example. NTFS indexes (lists) all the files in a Journal, a record of changes in operation, under which are then carried out the changes recorded in the file and double sequential record prevents data loss and damage to the file system. Based successfully subscribed Journal can reconstruct the changes that are due to turn off your computer is not successfully enrolled in the file. In the FAT file system AutoRecover no loss of data and a lot more likely. It is not surprising final orientation of all products in the NTFS file system. DOS operating system recognizes only tracks on the FAT partition type, Windows 9X systems recognize records on FAT and FAT 32 partitions as a NTFS file system designed to be able to recognize the data on these DOS file systems.

On the basis of Microsoft NTFS file system designs newer ReFS (Resilient File System) that has access to the advanced system disks, and the system with regard to eliminating errors in writing and reading data. All the available disk space hierarchy is monitored and increased options regarding the length of the file name and directions to it using the 'unicode' signs, and some of NTFS features will no longer be used as the short name of file names, file compression, and optional attributes. It is also significantly enhanced support for virtualization. As a result of advanced embedded systems with regard to resistance to errors, system administrators do not need to periodically run utilities such as CHKDSK when using ReFs.

Server versions of the operating systems are typically 64 bit, kernel since version 5.1 onwards. Versions for the end user of the Windows XP operating system onwards (after the release of 'Windows Server 2003' operating system whose core 64 bit Windows XP benefits) are available in 32 bit and 64 bit version. Core systems are different and the basic difference is the drivers and the amount of memory that can be addressed (232=4 GB / 264=1'073'741'824 GB). But that does not mean that the addressable memory is used for all 64 bit. For purely practical reasons, in the design of microprocessors typically used 48-52 bit addressable RAM. Multiprocessing and a large amount of working memory and disk are the main feature of the server and the primary task of the core system, which has to consolidate. The main factor regarding the development of 64-bit operating systems present design microprocessors that are typically 64 and will become the standard in the business environment. It is expected that more and more of software development for 64-bit platform and it would become the standard for home and business use.

In the previous list are not listed all server versions of Microsoft's operating system family. The release versions of Windows XP are combined directions of development of operating systems into one unified approach based on NT core and NTFS file system, you can basically use the following products company Microsoft:

The operating system itself has a few basic applications of general purpose word processing or graphics and the like, but powerful enough for serious use. Therefore, it offers a whole range of different products dedicate as:

Product is full. A very interesting product 'Virtual PC' which allows it to be in a second operating system installed. For instance installed MS-DOS to support through this program uses the resources of new computer and runs in a separate window that can be spread in 'full-screen'. Content 'embedded' system entered into a separate file so that they can be more. So on a Windows XP based PC can be used by all previous Microsoft operating systems. The author is very sympathetic to their realization of the keyboard and mouse. However, something very important. Over the years the program support huge numbers of other manufacturers, which is one of the main reasons for high prevalence (over 50% on a global scale) Windows operating system. Even more so since Windows XP offers acceptable regarding compatibility of applications designed to run on earlier versions of this operating system. If they will not work directly in the Windows XP system, whether through 'Virtual PC'.

Unfortunately for newer versions of the Windows operating systems mentioned software support is not available, although it can still be downloaded from the Microsoft sites, and should serve third-party solutions program support, one of which is for the same purpose the most appropriate free solution VirtualBox.

Microsoft has developed a comprehensive system for the automatic 'update' - patch defects for all of their products. These patches are issued separately (hotfix) or during the time when the accumulated quite a number of issues a complete self-installing applications - a package with all the necessary patches (Service Pack - SP). Thus these packages has six NT, and Windows XP and 2008 has three, and three packs for Microsoft Office XP and so for each product. Individual patches are generally issued once a month, usually in the second week of the month. It is essential for system engineers to these packages incorporated into Windows installation CD/DVD (Slipstreaming). Elements of security are increasingly more important in the world of Internet. In this direction develop Microsoft operating systems. In this sense, Windows XP SP2 system has brought a good deal of improvement, and SP3 final refinement of the patch. Additional features to the introduction of new technologies and increased functionality makes use of the operating system Microsoft Vista, which also eventually made SP. A similar sequence of events applies to the Windows 7 operating system and its successors.

That you should be familiar with MS-DOS? Basically no, but when you work with Windows XP/Vista/7/10 operating system, click on the 'Command Prompt'? System commands are entered by typing at the keyboard, and the rules are similar to those of the MS-DOS operating system. Especially if damage occurs when the operating system at the outset offer a menu containing the item 'Safe Mode with Command Prompt'. So to start the MS-DOS operating system in which all the principles discussed related concepts as a disk (volume), file and directory-folder. For Windows 7 operating system and its successors, is even more important to know the command line, because almost all the actions related to his support of the program can be executed with the command-line order, which enables the efficient creation of scripts.


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Citing this page:
Radic, Drago. " IT - Informatics Alphabet " Split-Croatia.
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