3.5.12. Accessibility of PC Systems

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One can not speak of strict standardization computers, because they are basically the recommendations to manufacturers adhere to all be competitive in the market which is very good for the user, because falling prices. Producers themselves know the solutions that become the 'standard' because it does not require copyright as quickly accepted Intel's PCI-Express solution system bus. USB interface is not standardized a long time because of disagreements between the two groups of producers, and was formerly an IBM 'bypassed' with its MCA (Micro Chanel Architecture) bus, he asked for a royalty to the way that the manufacturers' association quickly offered an extension to the ISA bus VLB (Vesa Local Bus) solution. Today's motherboards have integrated themselves to the components as control for disk and optical devices, support for sound, support for communication with mouse and keyboard, USB and network connections and even some of the devices, at the socket of the microprocessor, which is subsequently placed. But everything else is free to manufacturers to supply components market for busbar systems that are currently used. How is the position of the slot for inserting cards 'prescribed' solutions are widely applied to support graphics, TV cards, optical network cards, A/D and D/A converters and numerous other solutions that extend the functionality of the computer. It gives freedom to the user to choose what suits him and makes PC widespread, accessible and open platform for all purposes and innovations and implementations in diverse variety of professional purposes. Thus, for example, by installing the card with A/D and D/A converters can monitor and manage the production process or the results of measurements, of course with the appropriate software support.

Openness has its bad side, rapidly changing standards regarding PC performance and therefore relatively rapid obsolescence of computer equipment being followed by difficulties in maintenance. Could not possibly leave out the impression that the producers are doing it on purpose about increased sales of their products regardless of the numerous technological innovations of which the author of these lines like most 'memory stick.'

Particular area of application is to connect computers in the network system via the network card, as smaller, medium and larger firms the possibility of processing data with relatively cheap compared to the concept of large computer systems and also provides autonomous operation without the services of network resources. After all network interface card (NIC) is the basic premise is the successful implementation of the Internet. Internal network computers became affordable for small businesses and home use for bookkeeping service, design, etc., without having a permanent attachment to a global network. What's more computerized society, the need for networking and Internet access are more necessary, and the spread of SOHO devices increasing, especially in the work of state institutions use resources either in terms of retrieving data or sending reports.

PC from the start

When do the POST process, the initialization of a computer depends on the type of OS that is installed on it, so it can essentially be divided into DOS, Windows and OS/2 environment, and UNIX platforms and other types that are designed to work with a type of 80x86 processors. Although there are other types of processors installed in a personal computer, they are not so widespread application as shown above, and the term PC means personal computer just use 80x86 compatible processors in the computer.


When you turn your computer activity taking place in the following order:

The principles of the inclusion of any computer are analogous to the described sequence for a computer with MS-DOS operating system. Some of them are for a PC to a large measure allied and differ in the names of some types files as PC-DOS, IBM-DOS, DR-DOS, and the like.

Software for MS-DOS is not demanding, generally meets the memory capacity of 1 MB-4 MB, as well as MS-DOS was based on 16-bit instruction and data term. Although the processes of xx386 and better use 32-bit architecture necessary, work DOS OS and still is based on the initial principles. The operating system is in full for one task. Nearly graphically oriented applications that are no longer developed and used, except games that intensively use DOS because the least restrictive.

Working with directories is immense. File names are limited to a maximum of 11 characters (8 for the name and 3 for the type). Command parameters are numerous and very diverse. Therefore, users often choose to use any of the utility program which 'surround' DOS - shells, and provide better visibility, easier to copy files and more.

Windows applications have implemented the DOS version (session), so that the DOS remained present only as a possible window. For more serious intervention in support of the program will reach users in a DOS environment, for example in cases where activation graphical environment due to file corruption, and it is therefore still necessary to meet.


In MS-DOS computer operating system overall is in one directory, it is common [C:\DOS] size of a few MB. Windows operating system is much more complex, usually the root directory [C:\WINDOWS] with lots of files and several subdirectories (sub directory).

Was carried out in several versions:

1.) As an upgrade to the Windows MS-DOS (up to version 3.11)
2.) Windows OS as an independent developed in two directions:
        a.) Windows 95 (98) - ME
        b.) Windows NT - 2000
3.) Windows as the unified platform in versions:
      a.) Home Use
          (XP Home - Vista Basic/Premium - 7 Starter/Basic/Home -
           - 8.1 /N - 10 Home/Mobile /N)
      b.) Professional use
          (XP Pro - Vista Business/Ultimate - 7 Pro/Enterprise/Ultimate -
           - 8.1 Pro/Enterprise /N - 10 Pro/Enterprise /N)
      c.) Server purpose
          (Home Server - 2003/2008/2011/2012/2016 family of servers)

and installing the drive, depending on the version, takes from 10 MB to over 20'000 MB of disk space when installing the complete system on the hard disk.

Windows 3.11, the last version of the graphical user interface, as well as upgrading the DOS, affordable and easy to use. How many independent producers of software Windows is accepted as a basic development platform, almost no new versions of a program in a version for DOS. All the more so with your Windows OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) technology allows a relationship with other objects, such as a link from a word processor with an image or other file types, or to insert into the text as part of its integrated, and thus enhances the interaction between different applications. Of course, multitasking is not yet assured, but you can choose the 32-bit file access. WorkGroup version (WGW) allows the use of simple networks and introduces the concept of electronic mail, interactive communication via computer support fax-modem card. Software support is classified into groups with which the window with icons (small images) applications, which need not be from the same directory tree. The system is configured by default to DOS, and DOS environments by establishing WIN command activates the Windows graphical interface. If the command is included in the file, starting as the last in the series, the Windows graphical user interface will be activated immediately after the system is turned on.

Competitiveness with other Windows OS, and reached with a version of Windows 95, which successfully replaces the DOS operating system, primarily due to cost reduction and a large increase in power hardware PC. The system is not fully multi task, use long names for files and 32-bit FAT but retains compatibility to DOS and earlier versions of Windows, which means the preservation of the existing program support despite the change OS. Instead of the concept of the group introduced the concept FOLDER, a term that is closer directory, but allows the embroidery (link) through the folders so that the icon can display any object and invite those in the folder no. It is designed for Intel's PC hardware configurations, and therefore should be respected in their use all these hardware settings for MS-DOS, such interruptions, the addresses of I / O channels, the sequence when you turn on the computer and so on. The system is configured at power similar to the DOS. Otherwise made use files IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS and COMMAND.COM that allow the system to be set up by the inclusion in DOS mode and the system behaves as a single task, or in graphical mode and works as a multi-processing system when DOS can be used only as one of the possible sessions (environment) without directly addressing circuitry.

Windows NT to fully take control of the computer, a 32-bit multi-user, multitasking, multithreading and multiprocessing operating system adapted to operate on different hardware platforms. Completely surrounding computer hardware and makes it unified the user. It uses advanced file system NTFS (New Technology File System), which has an improved check data in the event of a crash, but it is still compatible with DOS. Uses a 16-bit standard for international characters (Unicode). Preemption dedicate him to function as a server platform supporting a demanding program that needs a good system stability. Demanding in terms of resources than previous versions.

The operating systems Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 more in a separate Chapter.

The great advantage of Windows is to work in a protective mode processor which excludes the magic limit of DOS systems of 640 kB. Besides the possibility of using virtual memory makes the system more stable, so that in the event of actual congestion of memory the operating system uses a hard drive using a hefty file as random access memory, which changes dynamically in proportion to the size of the tasks and the capacity of the disc is used (SWAP file systems). They will not get the message about lack of memory but will slow down the execution of the program of support to the frequent communication with the hard disk.

Other personal computers and operating systems

For PC computers built on xxx86 type of processors used and other operating systems other than those listed as:

Other versions of hardware and operating system on computers are suitable strictly dedicated tasks and expensive graphics workstations or for play and will not be made in detail to address, such as a Playstation and Xbox, and the operating system NEXT, Workbench, TOS and others.


The development of technology has certainly helped reduce cost computers in general. But since all computer platforms and most technologically production growth refers to the PC. Although the license rights to manufacture them free, universally recognized standard in their design according to Intel CPU type, to maintain over time, compatibility between the first and the current version. This means that almost all of the client software written for older versions of PC computers properly, but much faster, and work on new products of this type. Of course less demanding today written programs will work properly on older versions of PC.

With regard to the above principles of PC computers described in this Chapter apply to all versions of this type of computer. Parameter setting in the BIOS for the newer products is simpler and has been extended over the older versions. Significant changes relate to the improvement of the operating system PC computers that had to keep pace with technological advancement and demanding program support.

Preserving compatibility PC computers back to previous versions may have slowed the advanced design of this group of computers, but the contrast was preserved vast program support and widespread use throughout the world. Perhaps in the next period expected introduction of the graphical instruction sets of the microprocessor, the improvements of multimedia features that will not compromise backward compatibility.

Manufacturers of PC hardware supplied with all components and documentation that describes how to connect and setup of hardware, and the PC computers mode is described in numerous publications printing houses, both worldwide and in Croatia.

Documentation on the use of software by the manufacturer is usually sufficient for their successful use. It is therefore important to use the licensed product as it will be that way with the supplied literature to save a lot of time to learn how to use computer programs, and in addition it contains details of the contributions that usually independent printing houses not describe.

Licensed program support means fewer pirated copies and the reduction of software piracy can be expected and the localization of software to the Croatian language, which otherwise would not be possible. Until then, most users will use the English version of software that only has the option of setting certain parameters as currency, time, etc. according to standard Croatian. Therefore, it is not possible to avoid the use of English terms in the following descriptions, until the stabilization Croatian computer terminology and localized software support.

Software support for Croatian language can only be found in the products of independent companies, usually carrying type, while the general purpose is almost nonexistent. The exception to this was the LAPIS - program support for text processing written by the Croatian company on Croatian language that respects all the rules of the Croatian language is being verified written. Today we are happy if offered software support, mainly overseas, has a choice to display in Croatian.


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