PCI-Express 3.0 Motherboard - Chipset Intel Z77

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At the time of the first PC, the traffic between components is carried through the ISA bus slots, and each was equally significant. Graphics was not some special needs and the development of the device was not a priority. But in time the PC is becoming more players, and then multimedia platform which results in a strong development of CPU and GPU as the bearer of these tasks, provided assurance of quick and smooth transactions between them and RAM, and still one of the slowest component in the system - permanent memory. In addition, the huge amount of data is increasing hardships for security, and support for RAID and home computers no more exotic offerings.

On the previous page is a system based on X79 chipset Intel firm and four-channel approach to working memory. Approaching clocking RAM (DDR) and video memory graphics card (GDR), the CPU clock speed buffer with a completely new concept of making the CPU, which is shown below, has an integrated memory controller and graphics. In this way a high throughput. The exercise enabled multimedia features and a significant reduction in the size of elementary transistors in integrated circuits, thereby increasing the number of logical operations that are able to perform in a given time. Graphic displays are becoming more credible reality because the graphics system physically incorporated logical to work in community with a processor system. Of course, the integrated graphics can not ensure the quality of the image as an external graphics processing units, which may be more closely linked to each other 'CrossfireX' and 'SLI' technology, usually up to three graphics cards in a computer for home use.

The concept is based on the processor 'Intel Core i7' made in 45 nm technology with a base of 1366, with further development, leading to a third-generation CPU manufactured in 22 nm technology by the concept of the same core as the original 'Core i7' (Nehalem) shown in Figure 3.5.30c, with a team that is in the third generation of processors physically attached PCIe communication controller to the graphics subsystem and internal graphics subsystem logically connected to the processor subsystem, number of channels in the RAM is reduced to two but large bandwidth is not much less than the system shown in the example VIII. Due to the 'finer' technology CPU is smaller in size and has 1155 connections because of a smaller number of memory channels. In addition the number of chips that form the chipset has been reduced to one. Indicated a direct positive effect with regard to the overall price of a computer system. Series processor 'Core i7' has four cores and uses HTT while series 'Core i5' has four cores but not used HTT, while both series use the 'Turbo Boost Technology' (TBT), which in fact dynamically changes the clock speed of the microprocessor as needed controlling heating. Integrated graphics support 'DirectX 11', the next generation Windows graphical programming interface. All these series microprocessors support virtualization 'VT-x' technology. Some of the performances of this series microprocessors have the ability to tune performance (Performance Tuning - Overclocking), or change the core clock speed and voltage of the core. For the series 'Core i3', which has two cores, uses the HTT but does not use TBT and the possibility of performance tuning is recommended H61 chipset. All microprocessors have 32 kB Data L1 Cache and 32 kB Instructional L1 Cache and 256 kB L2 Cache for each core, and combines them shared L3 cache size which depends on the type of microprocessor. Logical connections and graphic processor subsystem is reflected in the most common usage of L3 Cache, which allows them to each of the processor subsystem uses the data needed, and it has a special feature of the bus.

Example IX

Efficient support for multi-core microprocessor family from INTEL for demanding home, scientific and office use a motherboard with a chipset INTEL Z77 microprocessors for the third generation type 'Core i7', predictable 'Core i5 and 'Core i3' manufactured in 22 nm technology with hundreds of millions of transistors and used LGA 1155 socket. Logic Modules and former 'North Bridge' chip-and incorporated into the CPU, and the rest in a single chip:

 Chipset Intel-Z77
Figure** 3.5.31 Block Diagram Intel Z77 chipsets / Intel DZ77GA motherboard.( +/- )

Thus, the number of chips to support the microprocessor has been reduced by one and allows more efficient design of computers in smaller cases. State of the system monitors a multitude of sensors and is represented visually by LEDs, a POST diagnostics display system allow efficient procedure for turning on the computer. Animated signs describe the purpose of each component, and no strict order of appearance as in Example VIII. The following table describes the composition and features are shown motherboards:

Form Factor ATX (304.80mm × 243.84mm)
BIOS 32 Mb Flash EEPROM.
Intel® BIOS resident in the SPI Flash device:
   - ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
   - PnP (Plug and Play)
   - SMBIOS (System Management BIOS)
   - Intel Fast Boot Technology
with Intel® 64-bit architecture
3rd gen. Intel® Core processor family (Core i7, Core i5, Core i3)
2nd gen. Intel® Core processor family (Core i7, Core i5, Core i3)
Processor TDP 95 W
Processor socket LGA 1155
Chipset Intel® Z77 Platform Controller Hub (PCH)
Chipset Technology (Lithography) 65 nm
Chipset TDP 6.7 W
Clock Generator Silego* SLG74804T / PCI-E Gen2 & QPI
Legacy I/O Control Nuvoton* legacy I/O controller (Winbond W83677HG-i)
Additional I/O Control ITE's IT8892E Super I/O chip (PCIe to PCI bridge)
Integrated Graphics Integrated graphics support via an HDMI v1.4a interface:
   - DirectX 11
   - Open CL 1.1 (include OpenGL)
External Graphics Flexible support for:
   - ATI* CrossfireX* technology
   - NVIDIA* SLI* technology
HDMI Parade tech's PS8171
Memory - Maximum Supported 32 GB (4 × 240 pin DDR3 non-ECC SDRAM socket)
Memory Frequency (refer to TPS
for configuration requirements)
Dual Channel Non-ECC DDR3
1066/1333/1600 MHz (4 DIMM)
Support for XMP (Extensible Metadata Platform) memory
for DIMM modules above 1600 Mhz.
Audio 8-channel (7.1) Dolby Home Theater* audio subsystem
Intel® High Definition Audio (Realtek*ALC898)
S/PDIF 1 optical port + 1 onboard 3-pin connector
LAN Controller Gigabit (10/100/1000 Mb/s) LAN subsystem:
   - Intel® 82579L Gigabit Ethernet Controller
   - Intel® 82574L Gigabit Ethernet Controller
USB Connectors 2.0 4 (2 external ports + 2 onboard connectors); 500 mA ouput.
USB Connectors 2.0
high-current / fast-charging
4 (2 external ports + 2 onboard connectors)
Up to 2.6 A combined output.
USB Connectors 3.0 8 (4 external ports + 4 onboard connectors) / Genesys Logic
PCI slot 2 / ITE IT8892E
PCI Express 3.0 x16 slot 2 (one x8 electrical; x16 compatible)
PCI Express 2.0 x4 slot 1 (switchable as x8 slot)
PCI Express 2.0 x1 slot 2
SATA (ports) 8 (4 × 3 Gb/s per port + 4 × 6 Gb/s per port)
   - 4 × 3 Gb/s with Intel® Rapid Storage Technology RAID
   - 2 × 6 Gb/s with Intel® Rapid Storage Technology RAID
   - 2 × 6 Gb/s with Marvel 88SE9172 controller
eSATA port with RAID (ports) 1 (with Marvel 88SE9172 controller)
PATA (ports) No
PS/2 Keyboard or Mouse
IEEE-1394a Ports (PCH) 1 + 1 onboard connector (Texas Instruments* TSB43AB22a)
Intelligent Power Technology Shared cache - CHiL chl8326
Smart Response Technology Yes (RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 0+1 or RAID 10, RAID 5) with PCH
System Responsiveness Yes
Hyper-Threading support Yes
Express BIOS Update Yes

The memory controller supports two modes of operation:

The memory map and how to access the memory locations corresponding to the schedule shown in the table on the previous page except the maximum available working memory. Major differences in the approach to the peripheral devices in relation to the example in Figure 3.5.27 does, except that the increased number of USB ports, because the great diversity of peripherals with this interface is constantly growing. Peculiarities about these changes next image illustrates.

 I / O connectors of matherboard  
Figure 3.5.32 Connectors for connecting devices.  

From the previous picture it is clear that the 'banana' connectors allow the use of six audio channels, then 5.1 system. To use a 7.1 system in a home environment to use devices that are connected to the motherboard via an S/PDIF connector. Circumspect when purchasing audio system. HDMI standard v1.4 or later supports S/PDIF audio communication, as well as very high-resolution picture display (4kx2k resolution) and a very large range of color depth displayed image (48-bit Deep Color with support for 36-/30-/24-bit), and the version of this connector should be considered when purchasing a graphics card or any other multimedia device.

In the example, the X79 chipset, it is evident that there are no PS/2 connector for connecting a keyboard and mouse, as is support for USB devices incorporated in the BIOS. This motherboard has a single PS/2 connector to which it is possible to connect a keyboard or mouse. Intel has introduced a mandatory requirement for the presence of advanced controlled modules for voltage regulation. As this is a small operating voltage, the proper observance of CPUs has become crucial for the smooth operation of complex processors, but also it has integrated a multitude of different devices. Operation of digital PWM (Pulse-width modulation) power supply module microprocessor controls a special processor which firm produces CHiL (CHiL Semiconductor Corporation) that dynamically supplies the CPU+GPU chip components corresponding voltage in accordance with the operations that are currently running. Motherboards in examples VIII and IX have incorporated this electronic surveillance power.

The memory map and how to access memory locations is similar to the schedule shown in the table on one of the previous pages, with the upper limit of 32 GB. Series processors for sockets LGA 775, LGA 1156, LGA 1155 and LGA 1150 are packaged in the same casing as per the dimensions size 3.75 cm x 3.75 cm, the available mechanical adapters for sockets sink, allows you to use the same kind of cooling for different performance microprocessor sockets. Greater ease and sockets are not electrically compatible.

Is available for enthusiasts 'Performance Tuning Guide', which describes how to install and' software support 'overclocking' systems and fine-tune and optimize the individual components. One should be very careful and not recommended to use this peculiarity if no effective cooling components. Cooling components, especially the CPU, RAM and GPU, it can be done in a variety of ways, from passive radiators as to special cooler with hot water pipes and water cooling. Always keep in mind that a deviation from the recommended values provided by the manufacturer can lead to instability of the computer and cause irreparable damage. Should assess whether the gain in performance of, say, 5% really means something.

If the user has no need for doubled graphics cards, and has the available hardware for the PCI bus, a good solution is the motherboard 'Intel DH77KC', shown in Figure 3.5.31c, based on the H77 chipset which is recommended for the series microprocessors 'Core i5' because it does not support running multiple graphics cards, and can monitor only one PCI Express 3.0 graphics card flush. What makes these motherboard is a 'mini-PCIe slot' that allows the installation of solid state drive in a way that incorporated SRT (Smart Response Technology) technology is used so that the SSD drive serves as a buffer (cache) conventional mechanical drive. With two server disk, which are more durable, more accurate and safer, and therefore more expensive than regular, it can get pretty fast and reliable computer, with or without RAID features blend in the PCH. Animated signs in Figure 3.5.31c describe the purpose of each component and have the sort order of convergent activation of individual devices after switching computers.


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