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Since ancient times, used a series of mechanical devices and supplies that are man offered help ordinary arithmetic. As nowadays the dominance of digital computing systems based on electronic components, it is interesting to learn about their historical development.

The beginning of the DCS dating from the end of World War II. Made for the military in 1945. has been put into operation the first electronic digital computer - ENIAC, consisting of approximately 18000 vacuum tubes, no working memory, which was the biggest problem that remains valid until the end of performing calculations, therefore virtually no reliability. Vacuum tubes were the main active element assemblies computer of FIRST generation. Because they were cumbersome and unreliable, occupied almost the entire building and spent tremendous energy. 1947th was delivered to the user's computer first commercial UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer). Somehow at this time there is also a company IBM (International Business Machines), previously known for electromechanical computing machine. 1954th has produced the IBM 705 computer and this is the start of its dominance in the world of computer technology, which at times has occupied over 90% of the world market DCS. Their computers are practically dictated standards in computer technology.

The first system, placed in a large air-conditioned rooms, they are perfect for the life of insects (BUG) who would walk around inside the electronic system caused a short circuit, and thus uncontrolled errors in program execution. Although bug in the interior of modern systems is no more nonsensical errors in the execution of arbitrary code bearing their name - BUG. On the contrary, debugging (debugging) is basically a term associated with the cleaning device of insects, and the programming relates to debug the program code.

Discovery and construction of the first transistor transistor computer system 1960th Company in CDC (Control Data Corporation), is the introduction of a SECOND generation of computer systems. Application of transistors has reduced dimensions and multiply increased reliability. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, compilers between humans and computers, man-friendly set of commands and commands are translated into binary instructions to the computer and thus make your computer more accessible for wider use.

IBM 1964th The module offers six IBM System 360, which is practically the standards of today's attack in computer technology. Made in integrated-circuit (more transistors on a single chassis), an introduction to the THIRD generation of computer systems and their miniaturization. Computers are already used to guide the process by pre-formed programs. Reliability of computers increases, the price falls to them. A significant increase in the speed of operation. Application memory elements is already a regular practice.

Development of integrated techniques enabled miniaturization, increase production and decrease costs, and since 1971. years, combining the basic assembly of computers in a single integrated circuit - a microprocessor. The FOURTH generation computer systems.

IBM 1981st has been prepared based on Intel microprocessors 8088 / 8086 PC-XT (Personal Computer - eXtended Technology), a general purpose computer for personal use, but enviable reliability, ability to use a variety of software, very flexible for everyday use. Exemption from licensing rights and documentation available soon ga, and slightly younger brother PC-AT (Personal Computer - Advanced Technology) presented the 1984th year based on the Intel 80286 microprocessor, are the best selling computer system. Developing programming languages, whose efficiency is increasingly common man approaching computers is used for developing powerful SOFTWARE PACKAGE that man used to construct a database, design, drawing, writing and more. Such a system is called a MICROPROCESSOR system has excellent opportunities augmenting various peripherals which makes it highly adaptable to various tasks, if needed, can be associated with a more powerful system, or computer network from the level of a small firm to whole world. PC is widely recognized to be the world standard for personal computers, of course, always upgraded as technology develops.

The latest research is focused on miniaturization and increased memory capacity, the development of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, and voice communication. These are the features of the FIFTH generation of computer technology which we are witnessing today. The development of artificial intelligence deals with the issue of the construction of computer systems that behave in ways peculiar thinking human being, and pattern recognition can be simpler language to explain such a system in a set of samples requested unknown sample by the properties corresponding to predetermined features.

According to these generational stages to DCS by the type could be divided into:

    1.) Big mainframe computer (MAINFRAME) - One central computer
             large computational power and availability to users,
             which is accessed through the TERMINAL, the device with
             the monitor and keyboard regarding communication with
             central-host, incapable to work independently in the
             absence of contact with the central computer.
             TERMINAL is a device which SERVS MAINFRAME
             program support that could possibly be of use.
             By Big dimensions and placed in a special room
             with nearly ideal weather conditions.
    2.) MINI computer system - Cheaper and less powerful computers
                than previous resulting miniaturization
                computer technology. Usually they are interconnected
                in the network, although each dedicated Newsgroup
                group of users who are tied to it with a terminal
                (default) or standalone computer (sporadically).
    3.) Microcomputer (PC) System - Wide variety of computers able
                   users to work independently on the computer but
                   connected in to a local computer network regarding
                   mutual communication or to communicate with
                   dedicated servers. Not intended to serve multiple
                   users simultaneously and processing large amounts
                   of data. Maintained by the USER.

The power of computer system is closely linked with technology. Today's PC surpassing former MAINFRAME almost all elements. Today in the fantastic influence of computer networks to link computers and networks themselves to each other, the first two of these types of DCS pointless. But there's more. Why change a system of monitoring and communication with interplanetary probe VOYAGER designed 20 years ago that my job is WORKING SUCCESSFULLY? Central (mainframe) computer now has the role of storage and servers for the enormous amount of data, or is it an extremely powerful computer for scientific or other purposes. More fitting name for their SUPER-COMPUTER, such as IBM's 'Deep Blue', something more than a ton computers known by the 'duels' with world chess grandmasters, or their newer, more advanced, and extremely powerful 'Blue Gene' system. The purpose of super-computers is enormous computing power, but it is still not realized in each individual computer networking techniques, but especially smaller computers or computer systems. The purpose of using one super-computer would be for example simulation of weather conditions on Earth. About how ga army used the better not even think about.

 Price of DCS
Figure 3.2.1 Unit price of DCS during the historic period.

DCS fifth generation properties can be described in several levels:

1.) Scope DCS - is very varied; databases and documents, design, education, expert systems, production management and other areas of human activity.

2.) Software system - with elements made for the intelligent subsystem, to solve problems and tasks, logical reasoning and handling of knowledge bases.

3.) Programming languages - include creation of communication through speech, images, drawings, design software system to the task.

4.) Architecture DCS - diversity in connecting elements DCS, from the processor to the periphery specially designed to create a unique special purpose entities, the design and construction of ships, multimedia and more.

5.) Embedded technology - which provides a system for the intended task of acceptable performance and functionality. The development of technology has enabled the functionality to the extent that the systems are acceptable for use, and the common man.

In general, computers are divided according to usage in two groups:

        A.) Process computers - who have control of the process,
                                designed for efficient performance
                                only one task.
        B.) General purpose computers - designed for quick adjustment
                                        in solving various tasks, not
                                        less effective than when
                                        measured with procedural steps
                                        for the same task.

The first group has its application in industry, the most striking example of the automated car factory. For example, a worker in the paint shop car by pressing the red button to order a computer that remembers the movements of the mechanical arm which color car body. When satisfied with the result of the order computer by pressing the green button to repeat his actions on the following upcoming bodywork. The main characteristic of this group of computers that are fully adapted to the task and that is to manage them more easily. In the example described, no keyboard or monitor. There appears a seemingly insignificant issue; factory needs fewer workers!

The second group is the most widely used in design and office facilities, educational institutions and at home. It is used for word processing, spreadsheet, for accounting services, the design of buildings, ships, play, learn, communicate and search the knowledge base through a web service, and in all other segments for which there is no appropriate software support (and there is plenty), and the required computer accessories which enlarged its options in relation to dedicate the (measuring card, modem, network card, music card, etc.). Communication with the computer is usually done via the keyboard and monitor. Today it is recognized as a pocket computer (palmtop), notebooks (laptops), small notebooks (netpad), office computers (desktop), and who knows what kind of more 'pad', 'pod' or 'top' version.

What should be the SIXTH generation computers? Today we see everyday and common Internet presence (+ network infrastructure services) and the universal connection of computers in a network. It is expected utter computerization and the huge growth in computing power, and the general presence of the 'invisible' intelligent network computers that run the car according to user preference, monitor his health help senses embedded in goods and automatically call the doctor if necessary. During the explosion of computing power because of the extremely effective miniaturization of basic computer circuits. Computational Intelligence is increasingly developing slowly and is associated with the man's mind.

Today's dedicated computers and devices that monitor, as humanoid robots, see and hear much better than humans, but they do not understand what they see and hear. But artificial intelligence is definitely getting better. But it can also be matched with a man, as evidenced by various inserts that can be incorporated into a man, even in the brain, the effects of a malignant disease diminish as epilepsy and similar. The virtual world is closer and more normal than any games until the 'association' with relatives that are members of miles away. Several thousands of enthusiasts 'geeks' today has grown into a couple million active participants of the virtual world in which we experience the virtual fantasies in different ways. The virtual stage is the first stage of mastering artificial intelligence. Result - machines that would meet our every whim.

Excerpt from a futuristic novel; .... When scientists finally after making PC turn its power, the computer is running. They put him a question - 'Is there a God?'. After a few seconds of silence, suddenly melted switch to turn on the computer and its power is redirected to the computer only known source and the subsequent response - 'Now there is!' ..... Waiting for us in the foreseeable future 'Teminator' or 'Matrix'? Maybe the sixth generation has already started.


General purpose computer type PC's all part of the common man's environment at home and at work. The development of technology has enabled the integration of large computational power in a relatively small volume at a very attractive price. Over time, the program support to the extent sophisticated that it may be of great use without knowledge of the mode of operation of the entire computer system, and the use of computers quite approaching the common man. The degree of user interest or need to master certain elements of a computer system are the main factors that determine how many elements DCS user in its findings include. Their mutual dependence clearly shows the following picture.

 Layers of DCS
Figure 3.2.2 Layers of a computer system.

Parameters and mode of access to hardware controls the BIOS (Basic Input / Output System), a basic system to monitor the operation of machinery. As the BIOS first layer around the hardware, its 'understanding' of system components and their coordinated work of great importance and it is the main task of the BIOS. Quality BIOS with its program support is well resolved transport system 'building', no dead ends. Operating system via BIOS allows you to use hardware as a single functional unit and ensure proper operation of software that uses operating system services. Basically, the client software does not rely directly on the resources that it displays the BIOS. Program support, according to the task and design, enables the user of the computer gets results based on the data entered.

Thus, small software routines and records in the BIOS a link to the hardware, and the connection between the BIOS and the operating system DRIVERS. A poorly written driver for a device can cause instability or dysfunction of the entire computer system. Lack of driver immediately ahead when it comes to graphics cards or music. Hardware manufacturers about higher profits selling their hardware solutions and other firms, but their drivers do not usually support the products of the other companies. For example the original drivers ATI former company working only with their products but do not work with the product of their partner SAPPHIRE for the same graphics chip has its own drivers, but much worse written. At first sight less than the price of their partner is very affordable solution. But if you sell something cheap why bother upgrading later drivers for existing or new operating systems?

The average user often does not have to know more than how to use computer programs and basic elements to be activated via the operating system on a PC. But if you will deal with the implementation of the program of support to the system must know how to use, and the operating system, and sometimes the individual elements of the BIOS, and if in turn makes software support must know the elements of the BIOS and hardware. Improved replacement for BIOS is UEFI - (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface), a new specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and hardware of computer. UEFI provides a number of technical advantages over a traditional BIOS system like: ability to boot OS from large disks, CPU independent architecture and drivers, flexible environment which including network capabilities and modular design. Originally UEFI is a proposal of the company Intel, which is supported by more than 140 technology companies, members of the UEFI established consortium, because improving the interoperability of OS and computer hardware due to overcoming the limitations of the BIOS. Of course, compatibility with standard BIOS is fully preserved. Possible layout of UEFI / BIOS interface is shown in Figure 3.5.36. UEFI BIOS in more detail in Example XII with description of Z97 chipset.

What order and to what extent the user will overcome individual levels depends on its professional orientation. People who will be in the future IT job equally important are all displayed layers and are furthermore gradually surfaced.


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