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 Vacuum tubes and Transistors Forties, at the University of Manchester in England, built the first true digital computer - MARK 1, Monster, located on a separate floor, with a bunch of electromechanical assemblies, where the continuous operation without failure for a period of a couple of hours represented an exception. Its main developer, Alan Turning and his supporters believed that the computer will never be accessible to ordinary people, nor that it should customize them. Alan Turing, in his research paper 'Hypothetical Machine' theoretically describe the structure of modern computers (memory, CPU, etc.), but never showed particular interest in the construction of a computer according to this principle. Former information technology is not able to provide anything other than such a cramped vision of the future of computer use in everyday practice. The first commercially practical and applicable computer Englishmen built the 1949th year called EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator).

At the same time the U.S. is developing a computer called ENIAC (Electronic Numerator, Integrator, Analyzer and Computer), which is generally considered the first electronic computer (the computer). Among scientists in this project was the mathematician John von Neumann who initiated the idea of computer architecture theoretically analyzed and systematized, and established the model on which is based the work of all modern computers. The computer was developed for military purposes in respect of calculating trajectory artillery projectiles. ENIAC was completed and put into operation in November 1945th Consisted of 17'468 electronic vacuum tubes, was a heavy 30 tons and consumed 174 kW. ENIAC was used for the calculations of the first hydrogen bomb and was in use until 1955. year.

Unlike computers built for the military, the first commercially successful electronic computer in the U.S. UNIVAC, which he sold to business firms and produced by the 46th The first copy of the UNIVAC computer was delivered in March 1951st The 'Office of the U.S. Census'. With great fanfare UNIVAC computer 1952nd was used to predict the results of presidential elections in the U.S. and based on only seven percent of the votes counted predict the exact outcome of the elections. This has greatly contributed to the popularization of computers and arouse interest in them and their development.

Sixties literacy one engineer involved the knowledge of working with slide rule. Wooden or plastic ruler, the usual length of 12.5 cm (pocket) and 25 cm (professionally), floating slider with numbers and sliding transparent frame labeled, allowed a relatively quick calculation on the basis of the logarithmic distribution of numbers along the ruler.

 Slide rule

Only in the early seventies penetrate the wider use of digital computers pocketable - Calculators. Today the price is so affordable that they became an aid in the learning process, and with their capabilities to fully replace and surpass former logarithm tables and slide rules. In 1973. INTEL company produced the first low-cost 8-bit 8080 microprocessor which was quickly accepted in the market because it has allowed the production of very small and inexpensive computers. Intel's next two decades dominated the microprocessor market with models 8086, 80286, 80386, 80486, and then as a model Pentium heirs, 'Core 2 Duo', 'Core i7' and others. Computers that are truly paved the way for personal use were the Apple II, Sinclair Spectrum and Commodore C64. Due to very low prices were affordable to almost anyone, enabling extensive computer training. Computer IBM PC, which is on the market 'came out' 1981st year, the final milestone under the rule of personal computers.

IBM PC is a personal computer, and today the term PC is used as a synonym for a personal computer. The specified computer is not at that time was the only personal computer is present in the market. Had great popularity, for example computer Commodore Amiga 500 (1200) and Apple Macintosh computers, which was technologically more advanced than the IBM PC. But stubborn policy leaders mentioned firms regarding copyright protection (not allowing creation of compatible PC) and upgrading their computer capabilities with third-party components, resulted in the collapse of the company Commodore and almost firm Apple. The IBM PC computer user could install whatever they want from any company, of course, assuming that the product has been manufactured according to the specifications for slots on the motherboard PC. It is this that has made the IBM PC standard prevailed and the basic idea remains to this day.

The development of digital electronics, very fast drop price computers, their dimensions are smaller and they are constantly growing computing power. Become eligible for desk users, and numerous and varied program support made them very useful common man. New standards of literacy unquestionably be imposed. Today, the usual stuff that is done by computer, writing words, calculating tables, databases, image processing, desktop publishing, etc., were only a dream of the then enthusiastic IT revolution, which is being conceived forties.

Application of computers in mathematics, physics and related sciences has enabled a kind interaction means and ends, and interdisciplinary that led to the development of all the instruments of science. The effect of technological development is such that the logic circuits MARK 1 computer fit into a box of matches when he made today's technology.

Undoubtedly, computer literacy is a necessary part of business literacy today. With classical knowledge necessary to master the elements of informatics literacy, and to render it for use, development and understanding of information technology and its applications in diversified economy and society, in other words - to enable the use of computers and computer programs. And the knowledge gained should be used to know the procedure of collecting and processing information for making correct and effective decisions about the actions that need to occur - this is again a informational literacy.

The electronic book 'IT - Informatics Alphabet', covers most of the elements of information technology, describes the principles of their operation, and allows upgrading of basic knowledge in the area of informatics literacy. Benefits-and use hypertext links that interrelate pages with related descriptions, and index pages of terms with couplings to sites associated notion. Towards quality content on other sites leads connectors with pages themselves or with a separate page with links, this book is a unique site which enriches the environment. Multiple Figures from 'onMouseover', 'onmouseout', 'onClick' and 'onDblClick' effect (Figures with the suffix a, b, c, & d) or 'GIF animation' are marked with ' * ' in a variety of combinations and colors. Unfortunately, the tutorial is not fully completed, or in this domain is ultimately true, but it is supplemented by new concepts and facilities to the extent and timing can be reached. On the preparation of textbooks and the author can find out more at: author.

Version of presented pages XYYGGMMa is interpreted as follows:

Another major problem is the use of expert foreign expressions because the author native language is Croatian. Therefore, I ask to be forgiven the use of incorrect linguistic expressions for individual professional terms. The big problem is making as certain terms mean. I hope that this book will contribute to complete and finishing Croatian IT dictionary. This e-book will never be issued in .PDF format. Why? Because the changes are too frequent and easiest to implement them is exactly in .HTML format of pages.

Site design is almost unchanged from the design as it was in the very early stages of development of this site, some of which date back to the very slow dial-up communications, and their original Figures made with as few colors. Until further notice, the author of these pages does not see a great need to exchange it, the more you are somehow preserved 'old-timers' peculiarities :-).



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