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 Glossary  Next

Term Description
AAA (3A) Triple-A; Authentication (establishing identity), Authorization (associated authority), and Accounting (recording activities). Primarily refers to the various ways of applying technology in the construction of public access telecommunications networks. Determining the identity of user and control of his working is called Authentication (see under Access Control).
A/D Convert analog signals to digital. Converter that is used to convert analog and digital signals. In this mechanism is used in the sampling time. Determine how many recognizable level will be divided amplitude analog signal. In a short period of time measured amplitude analog signal and is assigned the closest defined level, and to the subsequent measurements done converting the selected level in the binary sequence of pulses. The greater the number of available levels, the selected level after measurement will be closer to the actual value of the analog signal and the error which is introduced in the conversion is lower. Availability of levels required to define the values of each level using a larger number of bits. This means that the time until the next sampling must be extended in order to arrive to make the conversion, or the mechanism of the conversion must be done quickly. The larger the number of levels and faster conversion mean expensive A/D converter. For CD music tracks using 44.1 kHz sampling rate, with binary sequences of 16 bits.
A/D/A Unified hardware functions of converting analog signals to digital and vice versa, in principle, with the same basic parameters. Converter that as the device contains circuitry for A/D and D/A conversion. Although most professional unit has both functions, this term usually refers to computer converters musical cards in which all the required functions integrated in a single integrated circuit (chip).
Access control In the world of the Internet can be considered as Authenticate (user identity) and Authorization (access rights to resources). Both the term is sometimes referred to as Authentication, the mechanism of establishing the identity of the entity (human or computer) who comes to computing and information resources, and control the use of those resources.
Access number Phone number that the user IP Services establishes a connection with your Internet service provider (ISP), and is related to modem communications. This mechanism can be used in the internal telephone network for communication between two modems one of which is placed on hold and the other to call.
Access Point (AP) This term is mainly used in wireless communications. Wireless access point is a wireless hub that connects users to the LAN or Internet. AP can be a standalone device or circuit in a computer with a wireless network adapter and software support. Communication with wireless access points takes place according to IEEE 802.11 standards.
Access server Server that has the task based on the record in some kind of database to enable the user physical connections to the Internet. Depending on the type of network access devices (modem, ADSL ...) depends on how the access server will do its job.
Access time The time required to find information and make it available for processing. Access time is often used to describe the speed of disk devices. Access Time to disk devices. Fast hard disk drives for personal computers have access time is around 10 ms. May be considered in another way: as the time spent by the user using the Internet services and to the Internet access provider charges.
Account Name of the user that can not get along with the name or surname of the user, but is directly related to the identity of the user. A series of alphanumeric ASCII characters, usually up to eight, with no local graphemes, password-protected from 8-12 alphanumeric characters. Gives the user to access the network via the telephone system or computer systems within the network of its accession.
ACL Access Control List - The mechanism of the network device that specifies which resources are allowed to access the device or devices on the network behind that network device. Thus, the protection mechanism that defines the access rights, and its invert form defines which rights are not allowed to drive or to a network that is monitored. Can be used both forms of protection provided that the priority should be careful not to be allowed to keep the parts off or vice versa.
ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface - Standard configuration that computing devices on the handling of their consumption. Refer to the term 'Stand-by'.
Acrobat Reader Free software support, which is not part of the operating system is installed but about reading documents created in PDF (Portable Document Format) files. PDF files have the extension. Edit the file is not possible, and the creator of the file can be a tool to edit the document (this part is not free) prohibit the possibility of capturing images and the like. In this format there is more advertising brochures, e-books and related content available on the Internet.
ActiveX Windows technology that enables software components to interact among themselves regardless of what programming language are made. Most are used to create interactive web content, but can also be used for other program support. Used, for example, a mechanism for installing the patch the operating system or program support. ActiveX is Microsoft's answer to Java.
Actuator Generally, these are devices that convert electrical and some long input values corresponding to their mechanical output. Steering brackets HDD head unit and stepping motor of FDD device mechanism moves the magnetic head is one of the actuators. The relay is the simplest actuator. All known electromagnetic actuator is the speaker. In the same group of devices includes a pneumatic drill, which changes the state of the fluid (air) is used for the mechanical rotation of the drill head. These are excellent devices that operate on a process.

Availability of resources - a term with which Microsoft defined automatic retrieval of disk resources in the network in two ways: letter+$, for example 'C$' (only local disks embedded computers, but not the portable devices such as CD/DVD drives, USB flash drives, etc.); admin$, which provides access to a record in the environment variable %systemroot%, which is usually [C:\Windows] or [C:\WinNT]. Example look under the term '$'. Character '$' appended to the end of the share name means that the above hidden option. To maintain the computers in the network, in which the administrator's password in the power system engineers, above means easier maintenance of computer users 'remote'.
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop - Standard for faster data transmission telephone lines (copper wire) from the modem transmission, developed by telephone companies in order to transfer the image signals as a competitor to cable TV. In some versions of standards enabled the transmission speed over 20 Mbps. Asymmetry is reflected in the fact that the default user downlink multiple of outgoing and is it adjusted number 'subchannels' for incoming and outgoing traffic. Valid Shannon's theorem: What gives you access ADSL communication away from the user possible achievable data rate is lower.
Advanced Dynamic

Part of Intel's Pentium microprocessor which contains an algorithm with improved branch prediction regarding the acceleration of the workflow process and helps to overcome the deadlock in longer channels for data processing (pipline). Allows the processor is using 126 instructions during operation and handles up to 48 tasks and 24 storage. False branching is reduced by approximately 33% compared with the preceding architectures.
AHCI Advanced Host Controller Interface - Advanced communication specification with SATA devices that the BIOS can be turned on or off. Enables advanced features of the disk devices such as NCQ (Native Command Queuing) and Hot Plug if enabled computers. As for this, they must support a driver operating systems, newer operating systems have incorporated the installation procedure (Windows Vista, Windows 7 and newer versions of Linux ...) or in the older operating system loads the SATA driver inserted through floppy disks in the very beginning the installation (Windows XP and action <F6> to allow this). DOS and Windows XP, you can install and no SATA driver when excluding SATA-AHCI mode in the BIOS.
AI Artificial Intelligence - Artificial intelligence, the capability of the computer on the basis of the information received independently make decisions and learn. except in the scientific field is used in computer games, from design computer opponents to behave almost like real human opponents to the logical design of the mechanism (game engine) to perform the task more realistic.
Algorithm A series of well-defined sequential rules for solving a problem. In life, there are often situations that require compliance with the default set of rules, because that is the only way to come to an expected end or result. Unavoidable use of algorithms in computer science especially in the domain of programming. In other areas, the algorithm can be applied for example to describe the process of installing the operating system on the computer and then it is usually called 'To-Do' list.
Alias Pseudonym, alternatively USER_NAME or mark that is not tied to a person that basically forwards the message to all users who are associated with the selected alias, regardless of whether it is a single user, or more than one. In the same way, it can be a computer in the network to assign a different name.
Alpha The initial version of the program which is being worked out during testing and correcting the identified errors and add new features. In essence, this is a version of the program that certainly has many incoherent syntax and logic errors (bugs) and unfinished software routines and formed the conception of the final product. By this sequence of one or more 'beta' versions of software.
AMD The renowned manufacturer of processors, graphics cards and other specialized computer chips. Creation of law against monopolies in the market in which Intel has had to cede its patents least another manufacturer. Basically they survived by working copies Intel's processors (which have been tried and some more). Turnaround came when the design team 'Alpha' processors (by sale of the company DEC) created 'Athlon' processor that first equated computing power processors AMD and Intel. 'Alpha' architecture was once the most advanced concepts in making microprocessors. So Intel has got a perfect competition.
Anonymus FTP A server that is configured so that its contents via FTP (File Transport Protocol) can be downloaded by any user. When connecting to a server, users enter their e-mail address in place of a password, a system that supports this service assigned USER_NAME 'anonymous'.
API Application Programming Interface - Set of procedures, methods and functions (routines) that as part of software perform specific tasks, data structures, classes in object-oriented programming and protocols enabled within the library operating system or as a responsive service operating system to support the development of software. The result of computer programs, for example, an ordinary 'window'. API can be independent of the type of language processor (like C) or dedicated written for one system (cell phones). Regarding the development of software is usually free API available and well documented. Operating System General dedicate without a wide range of software has no future.
APIC Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller - Programmable controller interrupts that allows the use of more complex and advanced prioritization schemes to manage IRQ interruptions. Consists of Local APIC and I / O APIC, the first of which stated manages all interruptions to the processor while the other directs interruptions peripherals. In the main it is the overall increase in the number of available interrupts the 254th.
APIPA Automatic Private IP Addressing - This feature is defined by the 'Internet Assigned Numbers Authority' (IANA). This peculiarity say using Microsoft operating systems, and enables the user's computer receives data when the DHCP server function out. This mechanism provides the IP address of a computer in a private ' B ' class in the range of - 169 254 255 254, with a network mask Computer checks uniqueness assigned an IP address via ARP services. Allows two computers or their network cards, connecting directly crossed (crossover) cable and communicate with each other, or to a small group of computers to connect and communicate with the switch in the independent network with no Internet access. In essence it provides communications computers through network devices while the DHCP server is out of order.
Apple Computer An American computer company in California that is very significant to their contributions in the application of an unstoppable expansion of personal computers and home computers with the Apple I and Apple II and later the Macintosh family of computers. The company is known for innovation in the field of software and hardware, and most are known for having their Macintosh hardware components were very consistent and quality as well as the client software worked flawlessly and had more options regarding graphics processing and print production of common PC and use them in a large publishing and printing firms.
Archive A large, usually zipped (compressed), which contains several smaller files inside. The usual format of compressed files as RAR, ZIP, TAR, ARJ, LZH, 7z. The latter format is becoming increasingly popular when downloading of software, especially for the drivers (drivers) as it is characterized by a high degree of compression and is free of charge. The archive is not a backup. Almost all of the software tools for archiving with the ability to create self-extracted files which is mostly used.
ARM Unified name for RISC processors architecture, which is patented and designed by the British firm 'Acorn Computers Ltd' about 80' years, now known as the corporations' ARM Holdings' and deals exclusively design process to customer needs, of course, with the license fee, but does not produce them.
ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency - The U.S. government organization responsible for the creation of the experimental network that announced the beginning of the Internet. The network made by ARPA 1969th is designed of 'ARPAnet's basic function of transferring data between government laboratories. Is no longer used. The agency now uses the acronym DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency).
Artifact Distortion in the digital signal, either video or audio signals, known as an artifact. Manifested, for example, as a series of randomly scattered rectangular display different colors and sizes and display images.
Artificial Intelligence

The name that is given to every inanimate system that shows how to cope with new situations (intelligence). Has not yet produced an artificial intelligence that would be more human and consciously understood and solved problems. The possibility of making conscious artificial intelligence is now the subject of philosophical debate. But in practice, there are elements of these principles, for example, comparison of images using an optical mouse recording surface in order to determine the direction of movement of the cursor.
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange - Usually refers to a coding system that assigns numerical values of the characters, such as letters, numbers, punctuation, and other symbols. The basic ASCII code based on 7 bits per character, for a total of 128 characters. The first 32 characters are 'no print options' (change the line of writing, a shift position, etc..) Or are the controls for print management. Extended ASCII character contains an additional 128, extending to 8 bits, which vary in content due to different types of computers or the application for local purposes in certain climates.
ASP Active Server Pages - Server-side technologies, Microsoft's scripting language that is used on the server side to the requirements of the user generated websites such machine user expects. This is essentially the supplied HTML code associated with its data and content that is generated by the application, and no one can not be repeated. In the case of copying code to disk by the users is not of benefit to him. Counterpart of this technology as JSP and PHP intended for other platforms. Web content is created on the server and the user takes the finished pages.
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface - Standard that applies to SCSI and/or ATAPI-IDE devices that the company has established a 'Adaptec' in order to establish communication between the controller (usually a card) and these types of devices connected to it.
AT command set A set of key words that start with AT (ATention Code), and whose task is to configure the modem to work according to the wishes of users. Standard was created by 'Hayes', and eventually it is generally accepted and expanded to the modem communications evolved. The modem is in use less because of insufficient data transfer speed as well as video content, and the more accessible (financially) and more widespread ADSL concept.
ATA Advanced Technology Attachment - A computer bus technology designed to transfer data between the computer and the hard disk or optical devices. Her name is replaced in the PATA when established SATA (Serial ATA - Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) standard for data exchange in order to facilitate the differentiation of particular technologies. PATA is based on the parallel data transfer via multicore (40/80 lines) connecting cable, while SATA uses a fast serial communication. How is the original technology (PATA) use IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) interface, is sometimes used this name. PATA cable must have a maximum length of 46 cm and control electronics typically supports two devices per cable - channel one of which is designated as the main (master) and the other as a subordinate (slave) using physical jumper (jumper). Normally there are two channels (primary and secondary), but the number of channels can be increased with additional devices.
ATM Asynchronus Transfer Mode - Asynchronous, uncoordinated transmission, not simultaneously dispatching, method of data transmission in which small groups of bits transmitted at irregular and unpredictable intervals. ATM is designed for transmission of voice, video and other multimedia files that require short breeches high quantity of data, can handle small losses, but must be transmitted in real time. Once formed the core of Teleconferencing Network.
Attachment Appendix. A term that refers primarily to the body Appending file e-mail messages and pretended not pure raw text, then processed documents (word, excel ...), graphics, sound and other files. Due to the growing evil that these supplements contain (viruses, worms, etc.), system engineers than filtering and rejecting infected content happy to prohibit the transfer of such supplements and generally allow transfer only compressed (e.g. ZIP) files.
AVI Compression standard lead content developed by Microsoft. Video content on the Web are usually available in AVI and QuickTime format, but also as WMV formats that enable viewing of content protection in a way that is offered through the ActiveX 'add' enable viewing on a fee or through membership or payment passwords that forwards e-post. The standard is based on the periodic transmission of the images and sending the changes from the previous image to the next full image.


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